Angola: Tribus, naturaleza y arquitectura

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Trip Duration Days - 10 Days

Angola: Tribus, naturaleza y arquitectura

Price Starts from € 3455

Al buen viajero suelen fascinarle los lugares que desprendan un aroma y sabor nuevos. Angola tiene eso, es un país grande, enorme…desconocido por el resto del mundo, pero eso cambiará en breve. Hay que ir ahora que está en efervescencia de cambio para degustar la herencia de una brutal guerra civil, absurda y demasiado larga, y del pasado colonial, todavía muy presente entre mulatos, negros y blancos tostados. El peso de la historia está allí y marca el presente y no sabemos hasta qué punto el futuro, pero su naturaleza se está recuperando y los pueblos tribales ganaderos del sur siguen resistiendo a su manera los tiempos cambiantes. Angola es un país que se está reinventando, es fascinante y misterioso y vale la pena explorarlo con un buen guía local que estamos todavía formando.
FECHAS: 9-20 de mayo de 2020
 
DURACIÓN: 10 días / 8 noches
 
GUÍA: Joan Riera, antropólogo
Día 1: EUROPA – LUANDA
 
Vuelo hasta Luanda. Llegada a Luanda. Una persona de confianza vendrá a buscarnos al aeropuerto. Pasaremos la noche en el Hotel Talatona Convention o similar. AD www.hoteltalatona.com
 
Día 2: LUANDA - LUBANGO
 
Desayuno. Visita de la capital de Angola con su patrimonio arquitectónico, su paseo marítimo y los nuevos edificios de la era petrolera. Primer contacto con la sociedad angoleña, obsesionada con el progreso y las ganas de dejar atrás los 30 años de guerra civil (1975-2005). Desayuno en el hotel y charla con el guía de las actividades del día. Vuelo interno que nos llevará a Lubango, capital de Huíla y ciudad más importante del sur de Angola. El guía vendrá a buscarnos al aeropuerto. Traslado al Hotel Pululukwa Lodge. MP (cena incluida) www.pululukwa.co.ao
Descripción: Resultado de imagen de pululukwa lodge namibe
 
Día 3: LUBANGO – CHOMIPAPA – HUILA – LUBANGO (2h)
 
Tras el desayuno el guía antropólogo dará una clase introductoria (unos 30 minutos) sobre las migraciones humanas en esta parte de África. Con un mapa, recorreremos la historia de los primeros grupos humanos, los khoisán, cazadores y recolectores. La llegada de los pueblos bantúes (ganaderos y agricultores en el S-XV) y finalmente, la implantación de los colonos bóer y más tarde portugueses en la Meseta de Huila. Tras la clase, seguiremos hasta Chomipapa, región rural al sur de Lubango, habitada por los últimos grupos khoisán. Chomipapa está actualmente gobernada por un rey mugambue, etnia bantú. Conoceremos ambas culturas y la relación entre ellas. Picnic bajo un árbol. Por la tarde visitaremos la misión católica de Huila, primer asentamiento portugués en la meseta. Aquí entenderemos el modelo colonial portugués de mitad del S-XIX y el frenazo a la penetración bóer desde el sur. Tras la visita, regresaremos hasta Luabngo. Hotel Pululukwa Lodge. MP (almuerzo incluido)
 
Descripción: C:\Users\Joan\Desktop\FOTOS\ANGOLA\0_SELECCIO FOTOS\Angola (2).jpg
 
Día 4: LUBANGO – MUILA – LUBANGO (1h)
 
Desayuno. Día dedicado a la tribu más espectacular del sur angoleño; los Mumuila. Visitaremos el mercado tribal donde acuden los mumuilas y algunas mujeres handa, tribu vecina que se diferencia por los collares de cuentas blancas y verdes. Sus tocados, collares inmensos y su porte hacen únicas a las mujeres mumuila.  Tras saludar al rey (Soba) de los Mumuila de Llanura y pasear por el mercado, seguiremos hasta la población de Chibia para almorzar. Tras un paseo de tarde hasta la iglesia de estilo art decó, iremos hasta otro mercado para conocer a los mumuila de montaña, más aferrados a los cultos animistas que sus vecinos de llanura. Las mujeres mumuila de montaña se untan el pelo con una pasta (oncula) obtenida con grasa, piedra, roja triturada, corteza vegetal y estiércol. Lo adornan con conchas de cauri y abalorios. Sus grandes collares varían de color y material según la edad y estado civil. Gracias a que duermen apoyando la nuca sobre apoya-cabezas de madera como los antiguos egipcios y algunas tribus ganaderas del Valle de Rift los peinados y collares no sufren desperfectos. Regreso de tarde a Lubango. Hotel Pululukwa Lodge. MP (almuerzo incluido)
Descripción: C:\Users\Joan\Desktop\FOTOS\ANGOLA\Mumuila2.JPG
 
Día 5: LUBANGO – CARACULO – GIRAUL – NAMIBE  (3h)
 
Desayuno y ruta hasta Namibe, puerto principal del sur de Angola e interesante centro colonial. Parada en el asentamiento de Caraculo, curioso proyecto de la dictadura de Salazar para poblar el desierto (1947) y el oasis de Giraul para conocer a la comunidad de Ilha Mungongo (bellas vistas). Cuando lleguemos a Namibe aprovecharemos para visitar a pie la ciudad, su centro histórico, y el paseo marítimo. Hotel Infotour. MP (almuerzo pic nic).
Descripción: Resultado de imagen de arco angola
 
Día 6: NAMIBE – COSTA de IONA – DESIERTO de NAMIBE - CUROCA – ARCO (2h)
 
Desayuno y exploración del desierto, sus frágiles y desconocidos ecosistemas y la cultura humana que se ha desarrollado en los diversos oasis que salpican Iona. Pasaremos por los oasis de Curoca y Arco antes de almorzar en Tombwa, puerto colonial con astilleros todavía en activo. Tras el tour por la dunas pasaremos la noche en el Hotel Flamingo Lodge MP (almuerzo pic nic). https://kwanzalodge.com/flamingo-lodge
 
Descripción: Resultado de imagen de arco angola
 
Día 7: COSTA DE IONA – TCHITUNDO HULO – COSTA (3h)
 
Desayuno. Ruta hasta el corazón del territorio mucubal, la última tribu en ser sometida por la administración colonial portuguesa en 1936. Llegaremos hasta Virei, centro administrativo de la región. Visita del cementerio animista y ruta de 1h hasta las pinturas rupestres de Tchitundo Hulo de más de 20.000 años de antigüedad. Caminata suave de 20 minutos hasta la zona donde se encuentran las pinturas y grabados en las rocas graníticas. Tras la visita pic nic, charla con la tribu mucubal de la zona y regreso de tarde a nuestra base costera. Hotel Flamingo Lodge MP (almuerzo pic nic).
 
Descripción: Resultado de imagen de tchitundo hulo
 
Día 8: COSTA DE IONA - NAMIBE – GARGANTA – LUBANGO – TUNDA VALA – LUANDA (3h)
 
Desayuno y despedida de este lugar único y remoto de la costa africana. Ruta hasta Namibe city y de allí seguiremos hasta Garganta, antiguo asentamiento portugués con estación de tren. Allí conoceremos a la última etnia angolana tradicional de este viaje; los nguendelengo. Se trata de un grupo minoritario (300 individuos aproximadamente) dedicado al pastoreo caprino y a la caza. Destaca el bello peinado a base de moños voluminosos de algunas mujeres tribales y la arquitectura elevada de graneros vivienda. Tras la visita a esta tribu, seguiremos hasta Lubango. Almorzaremos cerca de Tunda Vala (vistas) y a la hora planeada iremos hasta al aeropuerto de Lubango. Vuelo hasta Luanda. Un minibús nos estará esperando en el aeropuerto de Luanda para ir directamente al hotel. Hotel Talatona Convention o similar. AD www.hoteltalatona.com
 
Descripción: C:\Users\Joan\Desktop\FOTOS\ANGOLA\Nguendelengo (1).JPG
 
Día 9: LUANDA – vuelo a casa
 
Desayuno y visita de Mirador de la Luna. Parada en el mercado artesanal de regreso, cerca del museo de la esclavitud (suele estar cerrado). Tras el almuerzo en el barrio de Ilha nos desplazaremos hasta la Playa de Santiago donde podremos admirar decenas de barcos abandonados. Es un espectáculo de gran fuerza estética que vale la pena presenciar antes de que anochezca. Tras la visita regreso a Luanda para coger el avión. AD
Descripción: Imagen relacionada
 
Día 10: LLEGADA  A CASA
 
FIN DE NUESTROS SERVICIOS

El precio incluye:

-Vuelo internacional
-Todos los traslados
-Vuelo doméstico Luanda-Lubango-Luanda
-Guía antropólogo español
-Vehículo minibús a/c y 4x4 en momentos puntuales en el Sur tribal (3 clientes por coche, 1 delante y 2 atrás)
-Alojamiento en hoteles con desayuno
-comidas especificadas
-Visitas y excursiones
-Seguro de viaje
 
El precio No incluye:
-Visado (se puede realizar pre-visado online)
-Comidas no especificadas
-Bebidas
-Fotografía en poblados
-propinas
 

Mumuila 

Also known as Muila or Mwila.

Population & Ecosystem
100.000 Mumuila live in Huila Plateau. Last Places team of ethnographers has divided the Mumuila tribe in Plain Mumuila (East of Chibia town) and Mountain Mumuila (West of Chibia town). They speak the same Nyaneka language with slight dialect differences but women dress differently with Plain Mumuila more richly decorated (hair and necks).

Economy & Society
Subsistence agriculture (mostly maize) and livestock keeping (cattle, goats and fowl). They gather in daily markets (except Sundays and Mondays) to sell and buy agriculture, artisan, and manufactured products. Some few Mumuila women still produce fine pottery to sell in markets.
Mumuila have a tribal chief who serves as the head of the tribe followed by a headman. Serving under the headman are the elders. Conflicts are resolved by the elders and the headman. A diviner is also often called upon.

Culture & Religion
Mumuila speak Nyaneka language.

For Mumuila women hairstyle is very important and meaningful. Mumuila women coat their hair with a red paste called oncula which is made of crushed red stone. They also put a mix of oil, crushed tree bark, dried cow dung and herbs on their hair. Besides they decorate their hair with beads, metal objects, cauri shells and even dried food.

Having their forehead shaved is considered a sign of beauty. The dreadlocks, are called nontombi. The number of big dreadlocks has a meaning: 3 dreadlocks means there is a dead person in the family. 4 to 6 dreadlocks is the normal style.

Mumuila women also wear impressive necklaces. Each type of necklace corresponds to a specific period of their life. When they are young, girls wear heavy red necklaces, made with beads covered with a mix of soil and latex. Later girls start to wear a set of yellow necklaces called vikeka made of wicker covered with earth. They keep it around 4 years until their wedding. Once married they start to wear a set of stacked up bead necklaces, called vilanda. Mumuila women never take their necklace off and have to sleep with it. They use wooden headrests, some beautifully carved, to protect their hairstyles.

Mumuila people are increasingly adopting the Christian religion but the older generations and in remote mountain villages Mumuila Animistic religion is still practiced. Mumuila believe that the spirits of their ancestors can either work for their good of for their worst. In order to please the ancestors, animal sacrifices have to be made. At birth a child is dedicated to a spirit by the parents in order to bless and protect him.
 

Handa

Also known as Handa de Quipungo or Vahanda.

Population & Ecosystem
30.000 Handa live in the fertile plains of Huila Plateau, between Kamuviu and Hoque market towns.

Economy & Society
Handa people mainly practice subsistence agriculture but also grow vegetables (cabbage and onions) to sell in big markets like in Hoque. Hand farmers also keep cattle, goats and fowl. Handa blacksmiths, once very active, are nowadays in regression but some still work to furnish Handa women with jewellery and hoes for the farm work. Potters are also in decay but some Handa women still fabricate clay pots to sell in markets.

Handa women continue to build and use baskets which involve many interesting geometry concepts. We refer, for example, to the notion of volume, conic (truncated) and cylindrical forms, spirals, proportions, geometric figures, patterns, plane transformations and friezes. The remarkable mathematical practices in the baskets are characterized by much unknown ethnomathematical knowledge that constitutes a challenge for future studies.

Handa have a tribal chief who serves as the head of the tribe followed by a headman. Serving under the headman are the elders. Conflicts are resolved by the elders and the headman. A diviner is also often called upon.

Culture & Religion
Handa speak Nyaneka language.

Most Handa have converted to Christianity and only the elder generations worship the African Gods and wear the traditional attires. Nowadays it is hard to see women younger the forty years old wearing the white (sometimes green) characteristic necklaces and complex hairdos. Body scarification used to be popular among Handa women but now has almost disappeared. Body marks can only be seen in women over fifty years old.
 

Muhumbi

Also known as Humbi, Nkumbi, Khumbi, Ngumbi, Nkhumbi, Ocinkumbi.

Population & Ecosystem
150.000 Muhumbi people live the fertile plains around Cunene River between the towns of Humbe and Xangongo.

Economy & Society
Muhumbi are mainly cattle herders but also practice commercial and subsistence agriculture along the Cunene River. Many young men leave the villages to find jobs in towns and cities.
Muhumbi have a tribal chief who serves as the head of the tribe followed by a headman. Serving under the headman are the elders. Conflicts are resolved by the elders and the headman. A diviner is also often called upon.

Culture & Religion
Muhumbi speak Nyaneka language. Most Muhumbi have converted to Christianity and only the elder generations worship the African Gods. The most stunning aspect of visual Muhumbi culture are the complex hairdos practiced to young women undergoing ‘fico’ or rite of passage (13-16 years old). There are two existing styles; the ‘elephant ears’ style and the crest style.
 

Mugambue

Also known as Gambue or Gambo.

Population & Ecosystem
25.000 Mugambue live in the feet of small rocky hills of Huila Plateau and in the forested plains south of Chibia.

Economy & Society
Mugambue people are cattle herders and also practice subsistence agriculture. Hunting is still practiced in forested areas. Mugambue blacksmiths have disappeared and now they purchase their hoes and machetes from neighbouring Khoisan blacksmiths or they purchase them in markets. Mugambue women still build and use wicker baskets and granaries. Mugambue society is ruled by a tribal chief who serves as the head of the clan followed by a headman. Serving under the headman are the elders. Conflicts are resolved by the elders and the headman. A diviner is also often called upon.

Culture & Religion
Mugambue speak Nyaneka language.

Mugambue combine their traditional religion related to the bull worshiping with Christianity. Nowadays only the elder generations wear the traditional attires with the exception of remote Mugambue groups in Cunene Province where one can find younger women with the clay traditional hairdo.

For traditional Mugambue women hairstyle is very important and meaningful. Mugambue women coat their hair with a mustard colour paste made of crushed yellowish stone, mixed with cow dung and herbs. Besides they decorate their hair with beads.

Mugambue women (mainly older women) also wear impressive necklaces (not as impressive as neighbouring Mumuila or Handa women’s ones). Once married they start to wear a set of stacked up bead necklaces, called vilanda. Mugambue women never take their necklace off and have to sleep with it. They use wooden headrests, some beautifully carved, to protect their hairstyles.
 

Khoisan

Also known as Khoi, San, Ju'hoansi, !Kung, Ekoka !Kung, Kamusekele, Sekele, or Mucancala.

Population & Ecosystem
3.000 Khoisan from Ekoka clan live in the rocky forested hills of Huila Plateau and around 5.000 ‘swamp’ Khoisan live in the large swampy area of Kwando Kuvango (Zambia and Namibia, Botswana borders).

Economy & Society
In Khoisan society men and women live together in a non-exploitative manner, displaying a striking degree of equality between the sexes. This band level society used traditional methods of hunting and gathering for subsistence into the 1970s. Today, the great majority of Khoisan people live semi-sedentary lives near the villages of Bantu pastoralists.

Traditionally, especially among Khoisan women generally collect plant foods and water, providing 60% - 80% of the group's sustenance, while men hunt. However, these gender roles are not strict and people do all jobs as needed with little or no shame.

Women generally take care of children and prepare food. However, this does restrict them to their homes, since these activities are generally done with, or close to, others, so women can socialise and help each other. Men are also engaged in these activities.

Children are raised in village groups of other children of a wide age range. Sexual activities amongst children are seen as natural play for both sexes.

Khoisan women often share an intimate sociability and spend many hours together discussing their lives, enjoying each other's company and children. Khoisan women will often rest, talk and nurse their babies while lying in the shade of a baobab tree. This illustrates "collective mothering", where several women support each other and share the nurturing role
It is unusual for the Khoisan to have a chieftain or headman in a position of power over the other members. Chieftainship within the Khoisan is not a position with the greatest power, as they have the same social status as the elders. Becoming chieftain is mostly nominal, though there are some responsibilities the chieftain assumes, such as becoming the tribe's logical head. This duty entails such roles as dividing up the meat from hunters' kills; these leaders do not receive a larger portion than any other member of the village.

Culture & Religion
Khoisan speak !Kung language.

Khoisan people call themselves the Ju'hoansi. Their material culture is very basic since they are nomadic or semi-nomadic and cannot carry many things. Today, they use colour beads to decorate their hairs and necks and have abandoned animal skins to cover their bodies. Since the 1960s Khoisan people use cotton fabrics as clothes, given by Bantu neighbours in exchange of medicinal plants Khoisan collect in the bush and in exchange of manual work in the fields Bantus possess. Khoisan still fabricate sophisticated bows and arrows for hunting.

Khoisan people recognize a Supreme Being (Khu/Xu/Xuba/Huwa) who is the Creator and Upholder of life. Like other African High Gods, he also punishes man by means of the weather, and the Otjimpolo-?Kung know him as Erob, who "knows everything".

Khoisan practice shamanism to communicate with the spirit world, and to cure what they call "Star Sickness". The communication with the spirit world is done by a natural healer entering a trance state and running through a fire, thereby chasing away bad spirits. Star Sickness is cured by laying hands on the diseased.

Healing rituals are a primary part of the Khoisan culture. In the Khoisan state of mind having health is equivalent to having social harmony meaning that relationships within the tribe are stable and open between other people in the tribe. Any member of the Khoisan tribe can become a healer because it "is a status accessible to all," but it is a grand aspiration of many members because of its importance. Even though there is no restriction of the power, "nearly half the men and one-third of the women are acknowledged of having the power to heal," but with the responsibility comes great pain and hardship. To become a healer, aspirants must become an apprentice and learn from older healers. Their training includes the older healer having to go into a trance to teach the novices, rubbing their own sweat onto the pupils’ centres — their bellies, backs, foreheads, and spines.

The community of the !Kung fully supports the healers and depends heavily on them. They have trust in the healers and the teachers to guide them psychologically and spiritually through life. The ?Kung have a saying: "Healing makes their hearts happy, and a happy heart is one that reflects a sense of community." Because of their longing to keep the peace between people, their community is tranquil.
 

Mudimba

Also known as Dimba.

Population & Ecosystem
15.000 Mudimba live between the wooded savannah eat of Cahama and the dry and rocky valleys and hills that end in Cunene River.

Economy & Society
Mudimba people are cattle herders and also practice hunting and subsistence agriculture. Mudimba women continue to build and use baskets which involve many interesting geometry concepts.

Culture & Religion
Dimba speak Herero language.

Dimba married women have two different styles of hairdo; ‘Afro’ style normally seen in older women or mothers with babies and the ‘three crest’ style less impressive than the ‘afro’ style. Dimba girls wear beaded wigs (sometimes covering their faces) for wedding celebrations which means they have had their first periods but are not ready for marriage. Dimba are becoming influenced by neighbouring Mhumbi and Mugambue tribes and are becoming increasingly Christians. Despite this tendency, in small villages African religion is still widely practiced.
 

Himba

Also known as Chimba,Oluthimba, Oluzimba, Otjidhimba, Ovazimba, Simba, Tjimba, Zemba.

Population & Ecosystem
18.000 Himba live in Angola and 7.000 in Namibia, separated by the Cunene River. They live in the dry and rocky valleys and hills around the Cunene River.

Economy & Society
Himba people are predominantly livestock farmers who breed fat-tailed sheep and goats, but count their wealth in the number of their cattle. They also grow and farm rain-fed crops such as maize and millet. Livestock are the major source of milk and meat for the Himba. Their main diet is sour milk and maize porridge (oruhere ruomaere) and sometimes plain hard porridge only, due to milk and meat scarcity. Their diet is also supplemented by cornmealchicken eggs, wild herbs and honey. Only occasionally, and opportunistically, are the livestock sold for cash.
Himba people are polygamous, with the average Himba man being husband to two wives at the same time. They also practice early arranged marriages. Young Himba girls are married to male partners chosen by their fathers. This happens from the onset of puberty which may mean that girls aged 10 or below are married off. Among the Himba people, it is customary as a rite of passage to circumcise boys before puberty. Upon marriage, a Himba boy is considered a man, unlike a Himba girl who is not considered a fully-fledged woman until she bears a child. Marriage with the Himba involves transactions between cattle, which is the source of their economy. Bride wealth is involved in these transactions; this can be negotiable between the groom's family and the bride's father, depending on the poverty status between the families involved. In order for the bride's family to accept the bride wealth, the cattle must appear of high quality. It is standard practice to offer an ox, but more cattle will be offered if the groom's father is wealthy and is capable of offering more.

Himba people live under a tribal structure based on bilateral descent that helps them live in one of the most extreme environments on earth.

Under bilateral descent, every tribe member belongs to two clans: one through the father (a patriclan, called oruzo) and another through the mother (a matriclan, called eanda). Himba clans are led by the eldest male in the clan. Sons live with their father's clan, and when daughters marry, they go to live with the clan of their husband. However, inheritance of wealth does not follow the patriclan but is determined by the matriclan, that is, a son does not inherit his father's cattle but his maternal uncle's instead.

Culture & Religion
Himba speak Herero language.

Both the Himba men and women are accustomed to wearing traditional clothing that befits their living environment and the hot semi-arid climate of their area, in most occurrences this consists simply of skirt-like clothing made from calfskins and sheep skin or increasingly from more modern textiles, and occasionally sandals for footwear. Women’s sandals are made from cows' skin while men's is made from old car tires. Himba women especially, as well as Himba men, are remarkably famous for covering themselves with otjize paste, a cosmetic mixture of butterfat and ochre pigment, to cleanse the skin over long periods due to water scarcity and protect themselves from the extremely hot and dry climate of Cunene River region as well as against mosquito insect bites. The cosmetic mixture, often perfumed with the aromatic resin of the omuzumba shrub, gives their skin and hair plaits a distinctive orange or red-tinge characteristic, as well as texture and style. Otjize is considered foremost a highly desirable aesthetic beauty cosmetic, symbolizing earth's rich red colour and blood the essence of life, and is consistent with the Himba ideal of beauty.

Hairstyle and jewellery play a significant role among the Himba, it indicates age and social status within their community. An infant or child will generally have his head kept shaven of hair or a small crop of hair on his head crown, this soon is sculptured to one braided hair plait extended to the rear of the head for young boys and young girls have two braided hair plaits extended forward towards the face often parallel to their eyes, the form of wear being determined by the oruzo membership (patrilineal descent group), the style remains during preadolescence until reaching puberty. Some young girls, with exception, may also have one braided hair plait extended forwards, which means they are one of a pair of twins.

From pubescence, boys continue to have one braided hair plait, girls will have many otjize textured hair plaits, some arranged to veil the girl's face, in daily practice the hair plaits are often tied together and held parted back from the face. Women who have been married for about a year, or have had a child, wear an ornate headpiece called the Erembe, sculptured from sheepskin, with many streams of braided hair, coloured and put in shape with otjize paste. Unmarried young men continue to wear one braided hair plait extended to the rear of the head, while married men wear a cap or head-wrap and un-braided hair beneath. Widowed men will remove their cap or head-wrap and expose un-braided hair. The Himba are also accustomed to use wood ash for hair cleansing due to water scarcity.

Himba people are a monotheistic people who worship the God Mukuru, as well as their clan's ancestors (ancestor reverence). Mukuru only blesses, while the ancestors can bless and curse. Each family has its own sacred ancestral fire, which is kept by the fire-keeper. The fire-keeper approaches the sacred ancestral fire every seven to eight days in order to communicate with Mukuru and the ancestors on behalf of his family. Often, because Mukuru is busy in a distant realm, the ancestors act as Mukuru's representatives.

The Himba traditionally believe in omiti, which some translate to mean witchcraft but which others call "black magic" or "bad medicine". Some Himba believe that death is caused by omiti, or rather, by someone using omiti for malicious purposes. Additionally, some believe that evil people who use omiti have the power to place bad thoughts into another's mind or cause extraordinary events to happen (such as when a common illness becomes life-threatening). But users of omiti do not always attack their victim directly; sometimes they target a relative or loved one. Some OvaHimba will consult a traditional African diviner-healer to reveal the reason behind an extraordinary event, or the source of the omiti.

Himba Color perception
Several researchers have studied the Himba perception of colours. The Himba use four colour names: zuzu stands for dark shades of blue, red, green and purple; vapa is white and some shades of yellow; buru is some shades of green and blue; and dambu is some other shades of green, red and brown.
 

Muhakaona

Also known as Hakaona, Zemba, Ovazemba or Mukawana.

Population & Ecosystem
7.000 Muhakaona live in the wooded savannah and rocky hills around Oncocua town, not far from Cunene River (Namibia border).

Economy & Society
Muhakaona people are predominantly livestock farmers who breed goats, but count their wealth in the number of their cattle. They also grow and farm rain-fed crops such as maize and millet. Their main diet is sour milk and maize porridge (oruhere ruomaere). Their diet is also supplemented by cornmealchicken eggs, wild herbs and honey. Only occasionally, and opportunistically, are the livestock sold for cash.

Muhakaona people are polygamous, with the average Muhakaona man being husband to two wives at the same time. They also practice early arranged marriages. Young Muhakaona girls are married to male partners chosen by their fathers. This happens from the onset of puberty which may mean that girls aged 10 or below are married off. Among the Muhakaona people, it is customary as a rite of passage to circumcise boys before puberty. Upon marriage, a Muhakaona boy is considered a man, unlike a Muhakaona girl who is not considered a fully-fledged woman until she bears a child. Marriage with the Muhakaona involves transactions between cattle, which is the source of their economy. Bride wealth is involved in these transactions; this can be negotiable between the groom's family and the bride's father, depending on the poverty status between the families involved. In order for the bride's family to accept the bride wealth, the cattle must appear of high quality. It is standard practice to offer an ox, but more cattle will be offered if the groom's father is wealthy and is capable of offering more.

Muhakaona people live under a tribal structure based on bilateral descent that helps them live in one of the most extreme environments on earth.

Under bilateral descent, every tribe member belongs to two clans: one through the father and another through the mother. Muhakona clans are led by the eldest male in the clan. Sons live with their father's clan, and when daughters marry, they go to live with the clan of their husband. However, inheritance of wealth does not follow the patriclan but is determined by the matriclan, that is, a son does not inherit his father's cattle but his maternal uncle's instead.

Culture & Religion
Muhakaona speak Herero language, similar to Himba. In fact Muhakaona are also known as the Black Himba.

Muhakaona women shape their hairdo with a mix of cow dung, fat, and herbs (frangance). On top of their hair some women may wear Kapapo headdress made of waste materials. Little girls have two braids on their foreheads, little boys have one behind their head, but if you see a child with one single braid on their forehead, it means that they are one of a set of twins. Pubescent girls wear long dreadlocks, made from their own hair but also their brothers’ and sisters’ hair.’ Near the towns, merchants have detected the demand, and sell hair extensions from India. Muhakaona women cover their bodies in otijze, a mixture of ash, butter and ochre that gives them the unique black-copper colour. Also a beauty symbol, Muhacaona women remove their lower teeth, which is done by hitting them with a stone. Like Himba men, married Muhakaona men wrap their hair in a sort of bandana and protect it by sleeping on a wooden pillow, often covered in a leather cushion, rare sign of comfort for a tribe.
 

Tjimba

Also known as Cimba.

Population & Ecosystem
Remote hunter-gatherer people living in the mountain ranges bordering the Cunene River.

Economy & Society
Hunter gatherers. They continue to use stone tools, and use Adenium boehmianum to poison their arrows. Tjimba are organised in small bands composed of around 20-30 members lead by elderly men and women.

Culture & Religion
Tjimba speak Herero language.

Their Himba and Muhakaona neighbours portray them as Herero who have lost their cattle and are therefore impoverished, but they are a distinct people, both culturally and physically. Indeed, physically they seem to be a remnant of an indigenous population of a southern African type—along with the Cuepe and Mucuis -. The mitochondrial DNA of Tjimba who have been genetically tested is similar to that of Himba, suggesting that they descend (at least maternally) from the same Bantu ancestors.
 

Mutua

Also known as Tua, Twa, Batwa or Batua.

Population & Ecosystem
There are 1.500 Mutua living in the dry river beads and forests around Oncocua town.

Economy & Society
Hunter gatherers and blacksmiths. Mutua are organised in small bands composed of around 20-30 members lead by elderly men and women.

Culture & Religion
Mutua speak Herero language. Mutua have given up part of their traditional cultural identity to imitate the dress and language of the Himba tribe.
 

Mucubal

Also known as Cubal or Mucuval.

Population & Ecosystem
70.000 Mucubal live in a large area between the slopes of Chela Mounts in the north, Chiange to east, and Cunene River to the south, where they are believed to have stopped during the Himba migration in the 18th Century.

Economy & Society
Semi-nomadic cattle pastoralists. They often steal cattle from Mugambue and Mumuila neighbouring tribes. Agriculture was introduced in 1990s and is still very rudimentary. Mucubal where the last tribe to be submitted by the Portuguese colonial army at it was not until 1939 that the last Mucubal leader accepted defeat. To this day they continue to be a proud indomitable tribe.

Family structure and organization are very specific. The father has the authority and is the head of the family, although the matrilineal descent is considered more important, as they inherit through the mother's family. For example the son of the Soba -chieftain of the village-’s sister is the heir of the Soba.

Mucubal can only get married with an outsider of the clan, although it cannot be with a member of another tribe like a Himba for example. Marriages of convenience are the rule most of the time. The fiancée is presented to her future husband during the Fico ceremony, when she is fourteen or less. This ceremony consists in a party with the two families during which presents are offered.
The couple has to wait a few more years before consummating the marriage in the centre of the village. Mucubal men can have several wives and are also allowed to sell their wife, if they don’t get along with her or even if they want to earn money, as a woman can be worth 2 cows, which is about 2000 euros. For a first marriage a woman can even be worth 3 or 4 cows.

Cattle is the real base of support to this important ethnic group in Angola. A Mucubal man is both richer and more important per the number of cattle they have. It can therefore be said that the cattle for any Mucubal is the ultimate expression of their wealth.
 
Culture & Religion
Mucubal speak Herero language.

Mucubal women wear an original and unique headdress called the Ompota. It is made of a wicker framework, traditionally filled with a bunch of tied cow tails, decorated with buttons, shells, zippers and beads. But tradition is disappearing as some women use Barbie dolls boxes to cram their ompota headdress. Women whether they are married or not can wear jewels. Ornaments like iron anklets, called Othivela, and armlets, called Othingo, are worn by girls as well as adult women. Mucubal women are also famous for the string they have around their breast, called oyonduthi, which is used as a bra. Women use to smoke tobacco (that they keep in a snuffbox called boceta) in pipes called opessi.

At their younger age, Mucubal girls have their upper teeth sharpened and lower ones removed. Also as mode of beautification Mucubal women rub mupeque oil (reddish oil that comes from a crushed nut found in the desert) on their necks and bodies.

Mucubal have some very strong time-honoured customs and traditions which they value so dearly. They are seriously interested in cattle, worship it and do not care about the rest of the world outside of the bush. As a custom, the Mucubals are not allowed to mention people’s name in public, except their parent’s names and specifically names of children. Married couples are not allowed to talk to each other in public, as long as she (a wife) hasn’t had children. They can only speak to each other in private.

Mucubal people believe in a God called Huku, Klaunga, Ndyambi. They also worship their ancestors' spirits called Oyo Handi and Ovi huku, which are considered inferior to their supreme divinity.

Divination is very important in their culture. They use talismans and amulets to protect their herds or prevent adultery. Nevertheless Mucubal are not afraid of death. Funerals can last several days or weeks. They decorate their graves with cattle horns.

The number of cows sacrificed are in relation with the importance of the deceased. This shows the importance of cattle in their culture. Cattle is only killed on special occasions, as Mucubal usually don’t eat meat but rather corn (when they manage to grow some), eggs, milk and chicken.

They don’t eat any fish because according to the legend, one of their chieftains was brought to the sea by the Portuguese and never came back. So they think that fish kills men.

Like the vast majority of African peoples, the Mucubals also practice a tradition strongly rooted circumcision of young people. The ceremony of circumcision is performed regularly and is an event of great significance, it being the feast of the initiation of young Mucubals, a sort of passage of young people to the status of youths.
 

Mucuis

Also known as Cuis, Cwisi.

Population & Ecosystem
There are 600 Mucuis living in the dry river beads and rocks between Virei town and Curoca Oasis.

Economy & Society
In the old times (before European colonization) Mucuis people practiced seashore-fishing. Today they combine hunting gathering activities with animal husbandry (goats) in Virei region.

Culture & Religion
Mucuis speak Herero language similar to Mucubal.

The culture and physical appearance of some of the Mucuis people seem to be a remnant of a pre-Bantu indigenous population. Culturally they have been strongly influenced by the Mucubal tribe, and speak the Mucubal dialect of Herero. The last speakers of Mucuis passed away in 1960s.

Physically speaking they are similar to other former hunter-gatherer groups, such as Pre-Bantu Kwadi and Tjimba.
 

Ngendelengo

Also known as Cuendelengo, Kwendelengo, N’Guendelengo, Olungendelengo, or Ovangendelengo.

Population & Ecosystem
1.000 Ngendelengo live in the forested mountains of Serra da Chela.

Economy & Society
Semi-nomadic cattle pastoralists, hunter, gatherers and subsistence agriculturalists. Living in a forested environment has allowed them to develop a rudimentary charcoal business.

Nguendelengo produce important quantities of vegetable charcoal that they sell beside the roads that cross their territory.

Culture & Religion
Nguendelengo speak Herero language strongly influenced by neighbouring Nyaneka.

Nguendelengo people typically wear little clothing (similar to Mucubal tribe), carry machetes or spears, and are renowned for their endurance, sometimes running 80 km in a day. What is unique about Nguendelengo culture is the way women decorate their hairs with ‘geisha-style’ buns and also their two-storey granary-homes. Nguendelengo live in isolated mountain areas and have been little affected by Portuguese colonization and missionary activity, therefore they still practice their African religion related to bull worshiping.
 

Kwandu

Also known as Kwando.

Population & Ecosystem
6.000 Kwandu people live in the mountain area of Serra das Neves, near the towns of Kamukuio and Mamue.

Economy & Society
Cattle pastoralists and subsistence agriculturalists.

Culture & Religion
Kwandu speak Herero language similar to Mucubal.

Culture is similar to neighbouring Mucubal tribe but more Westernized due to proximity of Benguela area that was colonized in the 18th century. Schooling and missionary action have affected the traditional ways of Kwandu people and nowadays they are mostly Christianised.
 

Cuepe

Also known as Kwepe, Kwadi, Bakoroka, Cuanhoca, Curoca, Koroka, Makoroko, Mucoroca.

Population & Ecosystem
There are 250 Cuepe living around Curoca desert oasis.

Economy & Society
Cuepe used to be hunters and gatherers living along the Atlantic Coast and the desert rivers. Like the Mucuis they were mainly fishermen, on the lower reaches of the Curoca River. With the arrival of European settlers, Cuepe moved to more remote areas inside the desert. Today they combine some symbolic hunting with gathering, subsistence agriculture, and goat riering.

Culture & Religion
Cuepe speak Herero language similar to Mucubal.

Cuepe people call themselves Kwadi. They appear to have been a remnant population of southwestern African hunter-gatherers. The last speakers of Cuepe language passed away in 2018. Cuepe culture is highly influenced by dominant Mucubal culture. Despite this assimilation process and the penetration of Christianity in the community there is a strong sense of identity. Cuepe still practice traditional medicine that is related to the old African religion (Animistic). Cuepe fabricate dolls and are in an interesting process of cultural revival, decidedly supported by Last Places.
 

Kwanyama

Also known as Cuanhama, Humba, Kuanjama, Kwancama, Kwanjama, Kwanyama, Ochikwanyama, Oshikuanjama, Oshikwanyama, Ovambo, Oxikuanyama, or Wambo.

Population & Ecosystem
400.000 Kwanyama reside in the flat sandy grassy plains of Cunene Province, sometimes referred to as Ovamboland. These plains are generally flat, stoneless and at high altitude. Water courses, known as oshanas, irrigate the area. In the northern regions of Ovamboland is tropical vegetation sustained by abundant but seasonal rainfall that floods the region into temporary lakes and islands. In dry season, these pools of water empty out.

Economy & Society
Kwanyama people lead a settled life, relying mostly on a combination of agriculture and animal husbandry. The staple crops have been millet, sorghum, and beans. In drier regions or seasons, pastoral activity with herds of cattle, goats and sheep becomes more important. The animal husbandry is not for meat, but primarily as a source of milk. Their food is supplemented by hunting, fishing, and gathering.

During the colonial era, the Kwanyama people were active in elephant hunting for their tusks to supply the ivory demand, and they nearly hunted the elephants in their region to extinction.
Kwanyama are skilled craftsmen. They make and sell basketry, pottery, jewellery, wooden combs, wood iron spears, arrows, richly decorated daggers, musical instruments, and also ivory buttons.

Each Kwanyama clan has a hereditary chief who is responsible for the clan. Many clans have adapted representation by having a council of headmen who run tribal affairs. Members of the royal family of the Owamboland are known as ovakwaluvala. Only those who belong to this family by birth, through the maternal line, have a claim to chieftainship. The clans figure their descent by a matrilineal kinship system, with hereditary chiefs arising from the daughter's children, not the son's. Polygyny is accepted, with the first wife recognized as the senior.

Culture & Religion
Kwanyama speak Ovambo language.

The traditional religion of the Kwanyama people is the primary faith of less than 3%, as most state Christianity to be their primary faith. Kyanyama traditional religion envisions a Supreme Being named Kalunga, with their rites and rituals cantered on sacred fire like many ethnic groups in southwestern Africa. The Kalunga cosmology states that the Supreme Being created the first man and first woman, who had a daughter and two sons. It is the daughter's lineage that created Kwanyama people, according to the traditional beliefs of the matrilineal Kyanyama people.
The rituals involve elaborate fire making and keeping ceremonies, rain making dance, and rites have involved throwing herbs in the fire and inhaling the rising smoke. The head priest traditionally was the king of a tribe, and his role was in part to attend to the supernatural spirits and be the chief representative of the Kyanyama tribe to the deities.

Christianity arrived among the Kwanyama people in late 19th century. The first Finnish missionaries arrived in Ovamboland in the 1870s, and Kwanyama predominantly converted and thereof have identified themselves as Lutheran Christians. The influence of the Finnish missions not only related to the religion, but cultural practices. For example, the typical dress style of the contemporary Kwanyama women that includes a head scarf and loose full length maxi, is derived from those of the 19th century Finnish missionaries.

Kwanyama people now predominantly follow Christian theology, prayer rituals and festivities, but some of the traditional religious practices have continued, such as the use of ritual sacred fire. They also invoke their supreme creator Kalunga. Thus, the Kwanyama have preferred a syncretic form of Christianity. Most weddings feature a combination of Christian beliefs and Kwanyama traditions.
 

Chokwe

Also known as Ciokwe, Djok, Kioko, Quioco, Shioko, Tschiokloe, or Tshokwe.

Population & Ecosystem
460.000 Chokwe live in woodland savanna, but are also found along rivers and marshland with strips of rainforest.

Economy & Society
In the north, the Chokwe are known as skilled hunters. In south, their livelihood has traditionally centred on cultivation of staple crops such as cassava, yams, millet, beans, peanuts and corn (maize). Pastoral activity with cattle is also a part of the southern Chokwe people's life.

Chokwe are famous for their exceptional crafts work, particularly with baskets, pottery, mask carving, statues, stools and other handicrafts. The art work include utilitarian objects, but often integrates Chokwe mythologies, oral history and spiritual beliefs.

Both chiefs and village groups are found in the Chokwe culture. Villages consist of company compounds with square huts or circular grass-houses with a central space that serves as the meeting place for the villagers.

The Chokwe are traditionally a matrilineal society, but where the woman moves to live with her husband's family after wedding. Polygyny has been a historic practice usually limited to the chief or a wealthy family.

Culture & Religion
Chokwe speak Kitchokwe language.

The traditional religious beliefs of the Chokwe centre around ancestor spirits worship. In groups where chiefs exist, they are considered the representative of god Kalunga, therefore revered and called Mwanangana or "overseer of the land". The Chokwe people believe that works of arts such as handicrafts and carved objects are spiritual, connect them to their ancestors and god Kalunga. With the colonial era, Chowke converted to Christianity massively yet the original beliefs were retained to produce a syncretism of beliefs and practices. They have, for example, continued their spirit-rituals from pre-Christian era, as well maintained their elaborate rites-of-passage ceremonies particularly to mark the entry into adulthood by men and women.

While facial and body scarification (popular until 1940s) have almost disappeared due to social, economic and cultural change, masquerades are still popular in Chokwe territory.