Nigeria: Viaje al África total

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Trip Duration Days - 16 Days

Nigeria: Viaje al África total

Price Starts from € 3770

Ocasión única para visitar uno de los países más fascinantes y desconocidos de África Occidental. Con 200 millones de habitantes Nigeria es un regalo para los amantes de la cultura, la historia y de los destinos poco masificados. El viaje, diseñado y guiado por Joan Riera, gran conocedor del país y especialista en sociedades animistas africanas.
Fechas: 1-16 noviembre 2019
Guía: Joan Riera, antropólogo
Número máximo de viajeros: 14
Día 1 (viernes 1 noviembre): EUROPA - LAGOS
Vuelo internacional hacia Nigeria. Llegada de tarde a Lagos donde seréis recibidos por el guía. Traslado al hotel. Primer contacto con la mega-urbe africana. Alojamiento en: Ibis Hotel o similar. AD
 
Día 2 (sábado 2 noviembre): LAGOS – ABEOKUTA (2h)
Desayuno. La primera parte del viaje estará enfocada en Lagos, pero como queremos evitar los atascos, lo dejaremos para la vuelta que tendremos un día y medio para visitar Lagos y la cultura Aguta (afro-brasileña). La segunda parte del viaje es una de las más intensas e interesantes. El ‘país Yoruba’. Iniciaremos esta etapa en Abeokuta. Los yoruba crearon desde antiguo grandes concentraciones urbanas, las bases de las mega ciudades africanas de hoy en día. Abeokuta sin ser la más grande alberga 600.000 habitantes y es uno de los centros históricos de la cultura yoruba. Pasearemos por la parte vieja de la ciudad con muchas muestras de arquitectura aguta (yorubas retornados de Brasil en el S-XIX) y la mítica roca de Olumo, templo y lugar histórico de refugio durante la época esclavista. Miraremos de entrar en el palacio real con bellas muestras de arte yoruba, conocer las famosas telas color índigo en el mercado, y acercarnos a uno de los templos egungún (religió yoruba Orissa) en la parte vieja. Alojamiento en: Continental Suites Hotel o similar. AD

Descripción: Resultado de imagen de egungun

Día 3 (domingo 3 noviembre): ABEOKUTA – IBADAN – IFE (3h)
Desayuno. Salida hasta Ibadán, mega-ciudad de 3 millones de almas, capital del cacao nigeriano y centro comercial del país yoruba. Parada de unas horas para conocer su enorme mercado, algunos edificios interesantes y almorzar. Seguiremos hasta Ife, centro de la cultura yoruba, donde todo empezó… visita al menhir sagrado y a alguno de los templos Orissa del centro. Alojamiento en: Kris Court Hotel o similar. AD
 
Descripción: Resultado de imagen de Opa Ogun
 
 
Día  4 (lunes 4 noviembre): IFE - ILESA – OSHOGBO (4h)
Desayuno y ruta hasta Oshogbo, ciudad sagrada del pueblo yoruba. Parada en ruta en Ilesa para conocer el palacio real de bello estilo yoruba clásico. Seguiremos hasta Oshogbo. Aquí encontraremos el primer patrimonio de la Unesco de Nigeria (el segundo es el reino de Sukur, frontera Camerún). Visita del bosque sagrado, habitado por primates y lleno de esculturas de la artista austríaca Susanne Wenger que representan los antiguos dioses del panteón Orissa. Recorrido por esta ciudad con varios templos de culto animista, talleres de artistas y la herencia única de Madam Wenger. Alojamiento en Heritage Hotel o similar: AD
 
Día 5 (martes 5 noviembre): OSHOGBO – EDE – ESSIE - ILORIN (3h)
Desayuno. Saldremos hacia el norte, zona de transición cultural entre la cultura hausa-fulani y el mundo yoruba. De camino a Ilorin, última ciudad yoruba antes del Gran Norte, pararemos en Ede (templo interesante) y Essie, museo etnográfico con curiosas esculturas de piedra. Llegada a Ilorin. Almuerzo familiar en casa de Shuaib (chófer) y tarde para explorar el centro histórico de esta antigua ciudad yoruba hoy en día fuertemente islamizada. Alojamiento en: Bovina Hotel o similar. MP (almuerzo)
 
Descripción: Imagen relacionada

Día 6 (miércoles 6 noviembre): ILORIN – JEBBA – KONTAGORA - RIJAU (8h)
Desayuno. Larga ruta hacia la tercera etapa del viaje titulada ‘Isla Tribal’. Cruzaremos el Río Níger a nivel de Jebba, lugar donde pereció el explorador escocés Mungo Park en 1806. Seguiremos hacia el Norte, el paisaje se irá tornando más árido. Seguiremos hasta Kontagora y desde allí llegaremos al pequeño Emirato de Rijau, base logística desde donde conoceremos diferentes grupos étnicos de la región. Llegada hasta el palacio real y tras saludas al Emir y a su familia nos instalaremos. Alojamiento en: Palacio del Emir de Rijau. MP (cena incluida)
 
Día 7 (jueves 7 noviembre): RIJAU – KAMBERI – RIJAU (2h)
Desayuno. Los jueves son día de mercado en Genú. Aprovecharemos esta ocasión especial para ir a este pequeño reino de la mano del jefe local para conocer a la etnia kamberi, una de las más tradicionales de Nigeria. La práctica del tatuaje facial y corporal sigue viva así como la perforación del labio superior e inferior. Pasearemos por el mercado y veremos todas las etnias de la región; kamberi, dukawa, dakakari y fulani. Pic nic en Genú y tarde para explorar pequeños poblados kamberi. Antes de que anochezca regresaremos a Rijau para dormir. Alojamiento en: Palacio del Emir de Rijau. MP (almuerzo)
 
Día 8 (viernes 8 noviembre): RIJAU – DUKKAWA – RIJAU (1h)
Desayuno y ruta hasta el territorio de los dukkawa, etnia vecina de los kamberi que tradicionalmente también se ha tatuado pero ahora sólo se ve en los cuerpos de las mujeres de más de 40 años (muy bellos). Alrededor de Dukku podemos encontrar miembros de la tribu y explorar poblados (bellos graneros decorados). Alojamiento en: Palacio del Emir de Rijau. MP (almuerzo)
 
Día 9 (sábado 9 noviembre): RIJAU- CICIPU – DAKAKARI - RIJAU (2h)
Desayuno. Para evitar el sol, partiremos pronto hacia el Reino Cicipu para conocer al rey que vive en una montaña. Caminata hasta su palacio. Charla con Su Majestad y los ancianos que habitan el recinto. Intentaremos organizar una danza cicipu. Tras la visita, seguiremos hasta el territorio de la tribu dakakari, reputados ceramistas. Visita de poblado y templo con amuletos de arcilla. Regreso a Rijau. Alojamiento en: Palacio del Emir de Rijau. MP (almuerzo)
 
Descripción: C:\Users\Joan\Desktop\FOTOS\NIGERIA\1_NORTHWEST\CICIPU - KAZZEME\ciciya_07.jpg
 
Día 10 (domingo 10 noviembre): RIJAU – YELWA – RIJAU (2h)
Desayuno. Último día de visitas en la región. Nos acercaremos hasta el Río Níger para conocer Yelwa, pequeño emirato pescador y ganadero. Tras saludar al monarca (si se encuentra en palacio) visitaremos el puerto y alguno de los poblados fula cercanos. Los fula (peul, mbororo) de la región decoran profusamente sus rostros y cabellos. Pasaremos la última noche en Rijau. Alojamiento en: Palacio del Emir de Rijau. MP (almuerzo)
 
Día 11 (lunes 11 noviembre): RIJAU - ZARIA (6h)
Desayuno. Despedida del Emir de Rijau y de su familia. Iniciamos la tercera etapa del viaje por Nigeria. Entramos en el mundo de los Emiratos Hausa: cultura, arquitectura, socio-política e historia. Dejaremos atrás la ‘Isla Tribal’ y conduciremos hasta Zaria o Zazzau, uno de los emiratos más antiguos del país. Larga ruta atravesando la región histórica de Kwiambana (vestigios de antiguo reino desaparecido con la Jihad fulani). Pic-nic en ruta. Llegada a la ciudad amurallada de Zaria y traslado al hotel. Alojamiento en: Fabs Hotel o similar. MP (almuerzo)
 
Día 12 (martes 12 noviembre): ZARIA
Desayuno. Día entero para caminar por las viejas calles de Zaria. Visitaremos el palacio real y la gran mezquita central, ambos de estilo hausa clásico. Introducción al mundo de los Emiratos Hausa. Zaria era un destino comercial para las caravanas saharianas, así como una ciudad prominente en el comercio de esclavos. A finales de 1450, el Islam llegaría a Zaria a través de sus ciudades hermanas Kano y Katsina. Junto con el Islam, el comercio de esclavos floreció entre las ciudades, mientras los comerciantes traían caravanas de camellos llenas de sal estos eran intercambiados por esclavos y grano. En 1805 fue capturada por los Fulani durante la Yihad Fulani. Las fuerzas británicas encabezadas por Frederick Lugard tomaron la ciudad en 1901. Alojamiento en: Fabs Hotel o similar. AD
 
Descripción: Resultado de imagen de zaria friday mosque
 
Día 13 (miércoles 13 noviembre): ZARIA – KANO (2h)
Desayuno y ruta hasta la mítica capital del Norte de Nigeria y urbe más importante del Sahel. Los orígenes de Kano, que era uno de los estados originales hausa, se remontan al año 900. El Islam se impuso en la zona probablemente entre los siglos XII y XIV. Los fulani la conquistaron en el siglo XIX, y permaneció en su poder hasta que en 1903 fue colonizada por el Imperio Británico. La ciudad sigue estando amurallada. Nos instalaremos en el hotel y visitaremos la zona antigua alrededor del palacio real y del mercado de tarde. Alojamiento en: Chilla Luxury Suites Hotel o similar. AD
 
Descripción: Resultado de imagen de Kofar Kabuga  Old gatewayDescripción: Imagen relacionada
 
Día 14 (jueves 14 noviembre): KANO – DUTSE (1h40)
Desayuno. Ruta hasta otro emirato vecino. Recibimiento por parte de los príncipes herederos. Entrevista con el Emir, un intelectual educado en UK. Visita palacio antiguo y viejas murallas, paisaje lunar. Cena real con Su Majestad. Alojamiento en: Palacio del Emir. MP (cena incluida)
 
Día 15 (viernes 15 noviembre): DUTSE – KANO – vuelo a LAGOS –vuelo a casa
Desayuno. Despedida del grupo. Traslado al aeropuerto de Kano. Vuelo doméstico a Lagos. Según hora de llegada, podéis visitar la Isla de Lagos, el museo nacional, y la parte antigua. Por la noche, traslado al aeropuerto para vuelo internacional a Frankfurt. Noche a bordo
 
Día 16 (sábado 16 noviembre): FRANKFURT – MADRID / BARCELONA
Llegada a casa
 
FIN DE NUESTROS SERVICIOS

Incluye:

-vuelo en clase turista
-guía de habla hispana
-chofer de habla inglesa
-alojamiento en habitación individual con desayuno
-vuelo interior
-vehículo con gasolina
-guías locales
-visitas y excursiones
-seguro (90 euros aparte)
No incluye:
-visado (lo gestiono yo en Madrid)
-comidas + bebidas

Kamberi

Also known as Kambari or Tsishingini.

Population & Ecosystem
150.000 Kamberi live in the fertile forested plains of Kebbi and Niger States.

Economy & Society
The Kamberi are farmers growing millet, guinea-corn, groundnuts and yams.

They are grouped into three tribes all speaking different dialects; Tsishingini, Tsikimba and Cishingini. Not all the dialects are mutually intelligible. Many Kamberi people have a negative attitude to modern ways. The elite class among the Kamberi feel that the traditional authorities have not approached this well and the authorities blame the Islamized and Hausa elite for failing to cooperate with them. The authorities have tried by gifts and decrees to get the Kamberi to conform to the national culture, but this has been misunderstood and suspected because the authorities did not take the Kamberi culture and world view into account. In most places the Kamberi are ruled by non-Kamberi chiefs and their elite have begun to oppose this. Most parents are against sending their children to school, feeling that it is a waste of time when the children could be doing farm work. The literacy level in Kamberi land may be 3%.

Culture & Religion
Kamberi women and men (at a lesser extent) still practice facial and body scarification and tattooing, despite attempts to stop the practice by the local authorities in Genu Emirate. Lower and upper lip piercing (small woods or blue glass beads) is still done among young women.

Kamberi women take time decorating their hairs with metal wraps and beads and they put on colourful short skirts when going to the market or during ceremonies. The usage of plastic colour beads for necklaces and bangles is common between young women and men.

The majority of the Kamberi practice ethnic religions. They believe that at death they will join their dead ancestors. They believe in and claim to often see ghosts walking about at night. The ghosts are said to have fire coming forth from their armpits and are known to beat people to death. Most Kamberi believe in witchcraft and many gods. They are also animists (believe that non-living objects have spirits), and they worship and sacrifice to various inanimate objects. Medicines and oaths also play a role in Kamberi beliefs.
 

Dukawa

Also known as Dukkawa, Dukku, Dukanci, or Baduku.

Population & Ecosystem
90.000 Dukawa live around Yauri and Yelwa regions. Dukawa homeland is hilly, rocky territory where rivers provide much fish and islands serve as fertile land for their crops.

Economy & Society
The Dukawa make their living as fishermen and farmers, mainly raising millet and guinea corn in the highlands and onions along the rivers. Other crops include maize, peanuts, sweet potatoes, and beans. The Dukawa grow their own tobacco, and many of them enjoy smoking. Town dwellers also have large farms in the bush where they live for part of the year. They are closely related to the Kamberi, speaking a similar language.

Many defensive towns still remain in the Dukawa region; surrounded by strong, high walls with holes in them for guns and arrows. Deep moats surround the walls, outside which is another trench with low walls and prickly thorns. Some Dukawa live in small rural villages outside these towns. Their homes are small huts with walls only four feet high and containing mud beds, beneath which a fire burns.  The Dukawa have a history of being great fighters; bows and poisoned arrows were their principal weapons. Successful hunters and warriors wore black shirts and bracelets made of the skins their victims. Hunting continues to be an important cultural aspect of Dukawa life. Arrows are sometimes fired out of guns, especially when hunting big mammals.

Unlike most tribes in Nigeria, circumcision is not a common practice among Dukawa. Instead, a boy's journey into manhood begins when he is able to wrestle. At that time, his father will give him a cloth and some land to farm for the next seven years, until he is ready to marry. Girls and boys have an opportunity to meet at the wrestling matches, and a girl is given flour to sprinkle over the head of the boy she chooses. All of these Dukawa cultural traits still exist. However, in recent years, increasing numbers of Dukawa have begun assimilating into a more modern, commercialized society.

Culture & Religion
Dukawa women have practiced facial and body scarification and tattooing like their Kamberi neighbours until recent times. The influence of Islam and Christianity and social and economic changes have influenced Dukawa aesthetic values and today is rare to see young women with body marks. Said this, the usage of nose metal piercings, jewellery (beads and metal bracelets) is still common among younger generations. The traditional dress for women was bundles of leaves tied around their waists. In some cases, brass rings are still worn in women's lips as the traditional ear ornaments made of red stone or red silk.

Due to contact with Muslim traders, a number of the Dukawa are Muslim. However, the majority of the Dukawa practice ethnic religions. They believe that at death they will join their dead ancestors. They believe in and claim to often see ghosts walking about at night. The ghosts are said to have fire coming forth from their armpits and are known to beat people to death. Most Dukawa believe in witchcraft and many gods. They are also animists (believe that non-living objects have spirits), and they worship and sacrifice to various inanimate objects. Medicines and oaths also play a role in Dukawa beliefs.
 

Dakakari

Also known as Lela, C’lela, Lalawa.

Population & Ecosystem
170.000 Dakakari live in the forested hills around the city of Zuru in Kebbi State.

Economy & Society
The Dakakari are mainly farmers and hunters. In search of good land many have migrated to Niger state. They return to their original centres for burials and festivals. They farm guinea corn and millet. Iron ore is found in this area and used to be locally smelted.

Culture & Religion
Today Dakakari tribal marks are similar to those of their Dukawa neighbours. Women usually have more marks on their forehead, neck, chest back and the arms. The front teeth were also filed to a point for beauty. Walki is the leather girdle worn till now by men to farm and during wrestling.

Dakakari worship their gods in forest and mountain shrines. One of the most important Dakakari sacred places is Girmache shrine, located near Zuru city. The shrine is more or less a grove because thick trees and water inhabited by crocodiles dominate the area, and local people come around to worship and offer sacrifices to the gods of the shrine and present gifts to the crocodiles. Every year the sacred crocodiles are taken out of the pond and men dance with them during the Zuru Uhola Cultural Festival.
 

Cicipu

Also known as Cipu or Acipa.

Population & Ecosystem
20.000 Cicipu live in the rocky hills and forested plains north of Rijau in Niger State.

Economy & Society
The Cicipu are mainly farmers and hunters. They farm guinea corn and millet. Cicipu women produce clay pottery for home consumption.

Cicipu society is governed by a king and a council of elders, all residing in original village on top of Korisino Mountain.

Culture & Religion
Cicipu women used to pierce their lips and insert a wooden stick or straw. Today only the older generation show the wholes on their lips. Scarification has also lost importance due to social, cultural and economic changes in Cicipu society. Rites of passage continue to have a strong impact in Cicipu society and boys and girls dress in colourful attires made of goat skin and decorated with coloured beads. In religious terms Cicipu people continue to worship the old gods despite an increasing numbers of Christian converts.
 

Zul

Also known as Zulawa, Bi Zule, Gezawa, Mbarmi, Barma, or Geji.

Population & Ecosystem
4.000 Zul live in the fertile plains and feet of rocky mountains between Toro and Zaranda in Bauchi State.

Economy & Society
The Zul are farmers growing millet, guinea-corn, groundnuts and yams. They own some cattle and sporadically Zul men organise hunting parties. The Zul used to live isolated in mountains around Zaranda and Geji towns. British colonial administration forced to come down and this meant the gradual erosion of their original culture. Zul language was reported in to be dying out and to have very few speakers. However, this appears to be wrong. There are both more speakers and the language livelier than previously thought. The number of speakers varies considerably from one source to another, but is probably about 4000.

Culture & Religion
Zul women used to pierce until the early 1960s their lower and upper lips where round pierces or white wood would be inserted. Beautiful facial tattoos (diagonal stripes on both cheeks) lived a bit longer than the lip piercings but by mid 1970s the practice also had stopped. Fuzzy hair can still be seen in some older women as well as the facial tattoos. Zul people have been converted into Christianity by missionaries but the older generation still worships the old gods. Singing and dancing are an essential part of Zul society.
 

Angas

Also known as Ngas or Kerang.

Population & Ecosystem
200.000 Angas live in the town of Pankshin (Amper plains) and the surrounding hills.

Economy & Society
The soil of the plains of Amper are littered with granite and farmers in the district grow crops on terraced fields to plant cereal crops such as millet, guinea corn and maize. The people used the granite boulders as foundations and walls for their houses.

Culture & Religion
The Angas celebrate a major festival called the Tsafi Tar or Mos Tar, during the celebration, a brief event called Shooting the Moon takes places to mark the end season and the beginning of a new season. The festival is usually celebrated during the time of harvest.
 

Eggon

Also known as Egon, Ero, Mo Egon, Hill Mada or Mada Eggon.

Population & Ecosystem
250.000 Eggon live in the fertile plains of the Benoue Valley. A few still live in mountains villages.

Economy & Society
The Eggon are one of the more economically advanced of the Benue Valley tribes. In the hills they grow guinea corn, cotton, yams, and tobacco. They practice in weaving and dying, producing cloth that is much in demand and can be traded. The Eggon villages in the hills are made up of round huts with conical thatched roofs grouped around a central courtyard. In the plains the Eggon are mostly farmers, selling dried fish and palm oil for cash. The plains Eggon build large houses within compounds and fortify their villages. The Eggon receives its name from the hill where the people lived before coming down to the plain.
 
Culture & Religion
Older Eggon men and women still have tribal marks and marks of lizards, birds and other objects on their necks, arms and belly. During traditional dances men wear spectacular headrests made of baboon skin.

Eggon are mainly traditionalists in terms of religion, but that Islam and Christianity is gaining ground among them. The Eggon generally believe in Ahogben (God) who is far beyond the sky and they believe he created man and the universe and anything good is from him, because he is far above they feel they can only communicate to him through Ashim (a close god to humans) which is a supreme God. Individuals or families also keep items like a pot or stone as their god at home which they believe in and also make sacrifices to. But with the coming of missionaries, Islam and Christianity have spread widely in their land. Today Islam and Christianity are the major religion in the land.The supreme god is called Angbashim. In order to consult this god a libation is poured on the ground seven times with some confession by the elder or priest. Apart from the Ashim, there are some religions practiced by individuals or families such as Akuk, Arikya, Gango and Yamba. They use items like stones, cowries, pots and sticks as gods. Such items are kept mostly at home in a separate room for worshiping and they offer sacrifices to the item, believing it chases away evil spirits in the land or away from the family and make land fit for farming.
 

Koma

Also known as Kadam, Kompana, Beya, Ndamti, Vomni or Verre.

Population & Ecosystem
60.000 Koma is a relatively isolated hill-dwelling ethnic group in northern Adamawa, in the Alantika Mountains, which shares a border with Cameroon.

Economy & Society
Hill-dwellers are spread through the south and southwest of these mountains, including many on the Cameroon side. There are 21 Koma villages in the Cameroonian side of the Alantika Mountains and 17 villages on the Nigerian side. Alantika means where ‘Allah hasn’t yet arrived’ in the Kanuri language. The explanation for this is the fact that the Koma tribal people living in the Alantika Mountains keep their Animistic religion and their ancient traditions despite being surrounded by Islamic societies in the nearby plains. The Koma are divided between two different clans: the Koma Kadam (East side) and the Koma Kompana (West side), and all their villages are controlled by the Emir of Nassarao (Nigerian side) and the Lamido or Emir of Wangay (Cameroon side) who profess the Islamic religion. The Koma have to pay taxes (in spices) to the landlords of the Alantika Mountains. In the last 20 years some Christian missionaries have constructed missions in the Alantika Mountains but there are few conversions till this day.

Customarily inheritance in Koma is in the maternal lineage. As a mark of acceptance and friendship, a Koma man may share his wife with friends, especially visitors. They have an average population of about 400 people per village, and many engage in rearing of animals.

Culture & Religion
The Koma are committed to their traditional culture. The men wear loincloths and women wear fresh leaves. Koma men are much more receptive to wearing of Western clothes than the women. Koma people are mainly attached to the African religion and they have a unique ritual known as ‘farting dance’. Koma medicine men engage in extended farting sessions on the occasion of public dancing ceremonies. They train with a master and are capable of farting for hours on end. When the anus area becomes irritated from prolonged flatulence, it is soothed with a healing powder. The tradition is thought to originate in mockery of puritanical Muslims, who used to enslave Komas and drove them to move their habitat into the hilly areas they now occupy. 
 

Gwari

Also known as Gbagyi.

Population & Ecosystem
1 million Gwari are widespread in the fertile plains of Niger, Kaduna, and Plateau states and the Federal Capital Territory.

Economy & Society
The Gwari people are predominantly farmers but they are also hunters while some are involved making traditional arts and craft products such as pottery and woodwork like mortar and pestle. Gwari are good with mixing clay to produce decorative household products such as pots. They are also known to be very good farmers, as they use local farm instruments like hoes and cutlasses to farm yams, maize, millet and groundnuts.

They are divided into two main groups. The eastern groups is called Gbagyi-Ngenge or Gbagyi-Matai and they are more populous. The western groups are called Gbagyi-Nkwa or Gbagyi-Yamma. The western and eastern groups speak different languages, and within them, there are sub-groups and dialects.

Culture & Religion
Body and facial tattooing are still practiced among certain Gwari groups. Body ornamentation tin select the cast of tattoo, piercing of surely parts of the torso similar nose, ear, abdomen etc. Traditionally, Gwari women do torso ornamentation to attract men.

The Gwari people are adherents of Islam, Christianity and traditional African religion. In their traditional religion, some Gwari believe in a God called Shekwoi (one who was there before their ancestors) but they also devote themselves to appeasing deities of the god such as Maigiro. Many Gwari believe in reincarnation.
 

Mumuye

Also known as Gengle.

Population & Ecosystem
80.000 Mumuye live in the Shebshi Mountains and surrounding plains in Jalingo region, Adamawa.

Economy & Society
Mumuye are farmers, although the soil in this area is not exceptionally fertile. During the dry season from October to March nothing can be grown on the desolate scrub-like land. Millet is the staple crop in the region and is used to make flour and beer. The uncertainty of harvests in this region have led to the development of various prayers and offerings that are made during both planting and harvesting cycles in hopes of increasing the annual yield. Hunting is widely practiced to augment the local diet, and game is generally abundant. Each village has its own hunting lands, and permission is required for an outsider to hunt on these lands.

The Mumuye were pushed into their current locale during the Fulani holy wars, which extended from the 17th century into the early 19th century. Along with their neighbors, with whom they have much in common, they fled southwards into the hills of eastern Nigeria where they divided into small communities that remained relatively isolated from one another. The Benue River Valley had very little to offer to Europeans in terms of natural resources, and so they remained relatively isolated from colonialist enterprise.

The relative isolation of individual communities remains today. For the most part, small villages are made up of one or two extended families and the spouses who have married into those families. Individual lineages identify with a totemic spirit that is metaphorically embodied in certain animals. Families that might otherwise be unrelated may develop political ties because they both belong the same spirit. The result of this sort of relationship is a somewhat decentralized power structure that permits the members of each totem group to retain a degree of power.

Culture & Religion
The Mumuye have a unique appearance. Their distinct style of dress clearly sets them apart from their neighbours. Men wear one or more leather girdles, the ends of which are decorated with beads and cowries (bright shells). Goat skins are also worn with the girdles. Both men and women wear beads, brass and iron bracelets and anklets, and pieces of wood in their ears. Women also tattoo their stomachs and wear straw and wood in their pierced nostrils. Men file their four upper front teeth to points. Most Mumuye make rows of small cuts above their eyes, at the temples, and on their cheeks.  The totemic groups mentioned above are of primary importance in Mama religion, for a lineage's membership in a certain group is defined by the group to which their ancestors belonged. Offerings and sacrifices are made to the family ancestors to appease them and to thank them, especially during harvest times. The dancing of bush cow masks is known to be a part of a secret society whose main purpose is to ask the ancestors who are associated with the bush cow for abundance and agricultural fertility. The skulls of ancestors are considered the resting place of their souls. Wooden statues that are carved to represent the dead are placed near the skull of the deceased person. It is believed that the spirit is then able to enter the statue which can be transported into the house where it is involved in the daily lives of the living.

Mumuye sculpture is unique, assuming a long narrow pole-like style. They also use bird and buffalo masks and big elbow carrier anthropomorphic masks.
 

Kanuri

Also known as Kwayam, Beriberi, or Yerwa.

Population & Ecosystem
3 million Kanuri live in the dry plains Northeast Nigeria up to Lake Chad.

Economy & Society
Kanuri economy is based on millet agriculture; in recent times, however, peanuts (groundnuts) have become an important additional cash crop. The Kanuri live in settled villages and towns and farm the sandy soil of the surrounding countryside. Maiduguri is the capital of Bornu state. The Kanuri are a commercial people with well-developed internal trade; they trade with the Fulani and Shuwa Arabherders for dairy products. Cowhide and goatskin are exported in quantity.

Kanuri society is stratified into several distinct classes. The family of the shehu, the political and religious head of all Kanuri, forms a royal lineage. Much pageantry continues to be connected with the court. Most Kanuri are in the class of commoners. Before the British came, there was also a class of slaves who could, nonetheless, rise to prominence in court. Kin groups are not as important among the Kanuri as they are among most other African peoples; the household of a rich, powerful, and noble individual becomes the central focus for many people. The Kanuri are polygynous. The typical household unit is the nuclear family of husband, wife, and children or the polygynous family living in a compound. Houses are of sun-dried mud bricks and may be square or round, with flat or thatched roofs, respectively.

Culture & Religion
Kwayam tribal women of the greater Kanuri nation still scarify their cheeks and do beautiful complex hairdos. The Kanuri became Muslims in the 11th century. Kanem became a centre of Muslim learning and the Kanuri soon controlled all the area surrounding Lake Chad and a powerful empire called Kanem Empire, which reached its height in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries when they ruled much of Middle Africa.
 

Jibu

Also known as Jibanci or Jibawa.

Population & Ecosystem
30.000 Jibu live in the extreme eastern part of the middle belt, along creeks or in valleys in that hilly/mountainous area.

Economy & Society
Most of the Jibu are farmers. The main crop is guinea corn; they also raise corn, bananas, and to a smaller extent rice and peas. All the farming is done by hand-digging the soil and making it into rows with shovels made by local blacksmiths. They do not own cattle or horses. The soil is not fertile at all and it has become very difficult for the farmers to obtain the fertilizer needed to grow their crops. They also gather edible leaves of various kinds from the woods. There are at least 16 kinds of mushrooms. The older women are good mushroom hunters and they easily distinguish which are edible and which are poisonous.

The two major towns are Serti and Beli. There are well over 100 villages, each with a village chief. Many of the villages are situated on the north or western side of the Taraba River. Many other villages are located father to the northwest either along creeks or in valleys in that hilly/mountainous area. The Fulani cattle sometimes destroy the Jibu crops. Since the paramount chief is Fulani, the people don't receive any remuneration for the damaged crops.

The people live in small mud houses with grass roofs. If the family is large, there will be several huts. The kitchen is an open house with just a grass roof and usually sits in the middle of the other huts. Most homes have several big clay water pots for carrying water from the river or creek, and for storing the guinea corn drink. All the vessels are made by the women. There is one village that is famous for its pottery because it has the right kind of clay. All of the family help with the farm work.

Culture & Religion
The Jibu are committed to their traditional culture. The men wear loincloths and women wear fresh leaves. Jibu men are much more receptive to wearing of Western clothes than the women.

The religion of Jibu is called "buki", which means "thing of death." It is a mixture of rituals, putting curses on enemies and removing curses by paying shamans. They have rituals to placate the rain god, river god, mountain god, etc. Men and women differ in the way they do buki. The men go as a group to sacred spots high in the hills to do buki. The rituals include slaughtering chickens and pouring out guinea corn beer as sacrifices to the gods. Women never see the men doing buki. Occasionally the men do buki close to the village. During this time the women and children are required to stay in their huts. The belief is that if they see the rituals, they will die or go crazy.

In past generations, Islam has been forced on the Jibu people. Most of those who profess Islam do not understand its teachings well, but continue to profess Islam as it offers more government jobs, better education, and other benefits.

During the past dozen or so years, the Christian population has increased greatly.
 

Fulani

Also known as Fula or Mbororo.

Population & Ecosystem
6 million nomadic or semi-nomadic Fulani live between the dry plains of Sokoto and the fertile Nigerian Middle Belt. The Fulani in Nigeria are a sub-group of the much larger Peul or Fula people, a tribe that is spread across much of West Africa.

Economy & Society
Most Fulani in Nigeria are nomadic or semi-nomadic, mixing farming with shepherding. Although some Fula tribes travel seasonally with their flocks, the Fulani in Nigeria have a permanent home they live in for half of the year. They only travel during the dry season, when grazing lands and water are scarce. Many of the men have multiple wives. Since cattle are a symbol of wealth among the Fulani, brides are sometimes chosen because of the amount of cattle they own.
Fula society is divided into casts. The fairly rigid caste system of the Fulani people has medieval roots, was well established by the 15th-century, and it has survived into modern age. The four major castes in their order of status are ‘nobility, traders, tradesmen (such as blacksmith) and descendants of slaves’.

On top of the pyramid there are the Dimo, meaning ‘noble’. The imo are followed by the artisan caste, including blacksmiths, potters, griots, genealogists, woodworkers, and dressmakers. They belong to castes but are free people. On the lower part of the pyramid there are those castes of captive, slave or serf ancestry. The Fulani castes are endogamous in nature, meaning individuals marry only within their caste.

Central to the Fulani people's lifestyle is a code of behaviour known as pulaaku, literally meaning the ‘Fulani pathways’ which are passed on by each generation as high moral values of the Fulani, which enable them to maintain their identity across boundaries and changes of lifestyle. Essentially viewed as what makes a person Fulani, or ‘Fulaniness’, pulaaku includes:
  • Munyal: Patience, self-control, discipline, prudence
    GacceSemteende: Modesty, respect for others (including foes)
    Hakkille: Wisdom, forethought, personal responsibility, hospitality
    SagataTiinaade: Courage, hard work
Culture & Religion
The traditional dress of the Fulani consists of long colourful flowing robes, modestly embroidered or otherwise decorated. Both men and women wear a characteristic white or black cotton fabric gown, adorned with intricate blue, red and green thread embroidery work, with styles differing according to region and sex.

It is not uncommon to see the women decorate their hair with bead hair accessories as well as cowrie shells. Fulani women often use henna for hand, arm and feet decorations. Their long hair is put into five long braids that either hang or are sometimes looped on the sides. It is common for women and girls to have silver coins and amber attached to their braids. Some of these coins are very old and have been passed down in the family. The women often wear many bracelets on their wrists. The women can also be seen wearing a colourful cloth around, the waist, head or over one shoulder.

Like the men, the women have markings (combination of scarification and tattooing) on their faces around their eyes and mouths that they were given as children.

Fulani men are often seen wearing solid-coloured shirt and pants which go down to their lower calves, made from locally grown cotton, a long cloth wrapped around their faces, and a conical hat made from straw and leather on their turbans, and carrying their walking sticks across their shoulders with their arms resting on top of it. Often the men have markings on either side of their faces and/or on their foreheads. They received these markings as children. Fulani ethics are strictly governed by the notion of pulaaku. Women wear long robes with flowery shawls. They decorate themselves with necklaces, earrings, nose rings and anklets.

One of the most important events in Fulani culture is the Gerewol, a yearly ceremony that gathers all the Fulani clans so that young members of the tribe can flirt and meet their future wives and husbands. Gerewol happens at the end of the rainy season (late September, early October) but rehearsals and smaller Gerewol ceremonies can be seen all year around. During the Gerewol, dancing and singing become central.

The Fulani have a rich musical culture and play a variety of traditional instruments including drums, hoddu (a plucked skin-covered lute similar to a banjo), and riti or riiti (a one-string bowed instrument similar to a violin), in addition to vocal music. Zaghareet or ululation is a popular form of vocal music formed by rapidly moving the tongue sideways and making a sharp, high sound.
The Fulani were one of the first people groups in Chad to be converted to Islam. The Fulani still hold on to many old Fulani traditions. They believe that family, cattle, strong morals, beauty, poetry, singing, and dancing are the most important things in life.