Chad: Ennedi, oasis y tribus

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Trip Duration Days - 17 Days

Chad: Ennedi, oasis y tribus

Price Starts from € 4200

Viaje pionero por la República de Chad que combina naturaleza, etnografía e historia. El viaje transcurrirá por el desierto más bello del Sahara según muchos expertos en desiertos del mundo. El Ennedi es un gran museo al aire libre. Desde Ndjamena recorreremos oasis, ciudades caravaneras y zonas aisladas donde las arenas gobiernan. En estas tierras extremas se conservan pinturas rupestres que nos hablan de un Sahara verde y abundante. El nomadismo sigue vivo como en tiempos coloniales, Chad no deja indiferente, es una última frontera, bella, indómita y apasionante. El viaje estará acompañado por un experto en desiertos, naturaleza extrema y culturas nómadas. Inmersión al corazón del Sahara más virgen.
Fechas: 1-17 febrero 2020
Duración: 17 días / 15 noches

Información de Interés:
 
-Guía profesor: Doctor Aníbal Bueno, biólogo especializado en desiertos, ecosistemas extremos y culturas humanas adaptadas a los mismos.
 
-Guía-chófer local experto en el desierto. Hamit Yaya es Tubu, tribu nativa del Ennedi y hace 12 años que trabaja como chofer-guía en expediciones por la región.
 
-Cocinero profesional nos acompañará durante todo el viaje.
 
-Es necesario visado (París – lo gestiona agencia) y vacuna fiebre amarilla
-Recomendable profilaxis malaria
-Días de largo recorrido –es un viaje ambicioso- pero con paradas y bellos paisajes desérticos no se hará muy pesado.
-Traed frutos secos, galletas, etc. para estos largos recorridos.
-Baterías extras para cargar cámaras.
-Hace frío por las noches en el desierto (10 grados o menos). Hace falta saco de dormir abrigado.
 
Día 1: ESPAÑA – NDJAMENA
 
Vuelo internacional de tarde a las con dirección a Ndjamena. Escala y continuación hacia Chad.
 
Día 2: NDJAMENA – BOKORO (5h)
 
Llegada a N’Djamena a las 04:45 de la madrugada. Aníbal, el guía profesor os recibirá en el aeropuerto. Traslado al hotel para descansar unas horas. Hotel Le Process o similar. Tras unas horas de descanso, desayunaremos y hablaremos de las actividades del día. Saldremos de la capital chadiana hacia Bokoro. Noche en tiendas. PC
 
Día 3: BOKORO – ABECHE (8h)
 
Desayuno. Salida matutina hacia Abeche. Cuarta ciudad del país, conserva aún su tradicional perfume oriental, sus largas calles arenosas llenas de asnos cargados de agua, dromedarios, mujeres con palanganas enormes con tomates y cebollas en la cabeza, hombres con turbante con bicicleta sin frenos, tímidas mujeres que se tapan el rostro al pasar extranjeros. Abeche tiene historia y pasear por sus calles resulta muy interesante
Tiempo libre para perderse por este laberinto con restaurantes locales con carne de camello deliciosa y otras curiosidades que encontrareis paseando por sus mercados, mezquita, etc. Saludaremos al Sultán actual si se encuentra en Abeche. Noche en Hotel Abeche o similar. AD
 
Día 4: ABECHE – OUARA - KALAÏT (8h)
 
Desayuno. Seguiremos norte hasta Ouara (que viene de la palabra ouar – inaccesible-). Se trata de las ruinas de lo que fue la capital del sulnanato comercial de Ouaddai. Fue fundada en 1635 por Abd al Karim, hijo de Yame de la tribu de los Dschalidja y fue durante dos siglos un importante centro comercial entre el Mar Rojo y el Golfo de Guinea. Visita de las ruinas del antiguo sultanato del Ouaddai En 1850, el sultán Mohamed Charif, abandona Ouara por una sequía que volvió la vida imposible en la zona, y se estableció en la actual Abeche. De todas formas la entronización de los nuevos sultanes continúa celebrándose en el monte Treya. Tras la visita seguiremos hasta Kalaït. Acampada. PC
 
Día 5: KALAÏT – TOUKOU (5h)
 
Desayuno. Salimos de Kalaït y entre el Ennedi y el masivo de Kapka, llegaremos a Oum Chalouba, pueblo grande donde repostaremos y revisaremos vehículos, y mientras se podrá pasear, comprar comida, agua y tomar algunos refrescos o cervezas (como siempre medio escondida en un bar de un cristiano emigrado al desierto). Continuaremos después y acamparemos cerca de la pista en dirección a Toukou. Acampada. MP
 
Día 6: TOUKOU – GUELTA DE BACHEKELÉ (2h)
 
Desayuno y entrada al corazón del Ennedi. Naturaleza, paisajes y espiritualidad…aquí viven los Teda, tribu nómada del desierto chadiano... descendientes de los ganaderos que dibujaron las rocas rojas de este desierto. Paradas para admirar el arte rupestre sahariano. Encuentros con nómadas. Acampada antes de penetrar en Archei. PC
 
Día 7: GUELTA DE BACHEKELÉ – ARCO ARGOUBA - GUELTA D’ARCHEÏ (1h)
 
Desayuno. Seguimos pista y visitamos una increíblemente bella formación rocosa, el Arco de Argouba. Tras pasear por debajo de este inmenso arco de triunfo natural nos desplazaremos hasta uno de los lugares más icónicos del Ennedi; el Guelta de Archei. Aparte de la espectacularidad del paisaje y de los míticos abrevaderos de dromedarios, Archei es importante porque es aquí donde se encuentran los últimos cocodrilos del Sahara. Especie endémica, fósil viviente de cuando el desierto era un vergel de vida y vegetación. El macizo del Ennedi es un laberinto de acantilados de arenisca, de formas insólitas en las montañas, en las rocas, en las dunas. En el inmenso paisaje mineral. Muy cerca de la Guelta nos instalaremos bajos sombras de acacias y otros árboles que abundan en la zona y a partir de ahí haremos diferentes excursiones a pie. Acampada. PC
 
Día 8: GUELTA D’ARCHEÏ – CAÑÓN DE BACHIKÉ (2h)
 
Desayuno. Último día para explorar los rincones del Ennedi. Abrevaderos  con cientos de dormedarios, asnos y cabras…vida nómada. Formaciones rocosas entre las dunas, arte milenario de alta calidad técnica, paisaje frágil y fascinante. Noche bajo las estrellas. Acampada. PC
 
Día 9: CAÑÓN DE BACHIKÉ – FADA (1h)
 
Desayuno. Salida hacia Fada, capital del Ennedi. Magníficos paisajes y llegada a Fada, donde anunciaremos nuestra presencia (no hay turismo y tienen que entender que hacemos por esos parajes) a las autoridades, tomaremos algo fresco en un bar y seguiremos dirección Archei (2h). Por la zona de Fada y Archei, hay impresionantes (y muy desconocidas) pinturas rupestres. Acampada por los alrededores. MP
 
Día 10: FADA – LAGO OUNIANGA SERIR (9h)
 
Desayuno. El desierto sigue cambiando y encontramos las primeras grandes dunas que aparecen y desaparecen. Pasamos por una zona donde encontramos aun restos (misiles, tanques) de la guerra con Libia. Pararemos en una aldea con pozos de agua para descansar y seguiremos hasta Ounianga Kebir, ya en el desierto del Ennedi. En el pueblo, podremos tomar algo fresco mientras rellenamos tanques de gasolina y el guía se presenta a las autoridades. Acampada en los alrededores de Ounianga Kebir (‘lago grande’ en árabe), precioso lago de color azul metálico, rodeado de palmeras e impresionantes acantilados anaranjados donde mueren las dunas de la depresión de Mourdi…todo un espectáculo! Acampada. MP
 
Día 11: LAGO OUNIANGA SERIR – LAGO OUNIANGA KEBBIR (1h)
 
Desayuno. Los lagos de Ounianga son una anomalía única en el mundo. Situados en la mitad del Sahara (a 1.300 kilómetros de la capital del Chad, N’Djamena), nos encontramos cinco lagos siendo los más grandes los de Ounianga Kebir (Gran Ounianga) y menores los de Ounianga Serir (Pequeño Ounianga) a una cuarentena de kilómetros de éstos. Yoan es el lago mayor y con una extensión de 4 Km2. y una profundidad de ¡¡25 m.!!. Se encuentra dominado por un fuerte excavado en un acantilado desde el que el Imperio Otomano pretendía establecer en esta remota área su más que evanescente autoridad a principios del Siglo XX. Hay lagos azules, verdes, rojos. De agua dulce y de agua salada. Rodeados de arena o enclavados en rocas. Ounianga Kebir y Ounianga Serir es el punto de llegada de un extraordinario viaje a través del desierto sahariano del Borkou. 2 noches alrededor de Ounianga Serir, donde podremos incluso darnos unos baños bien frescos en uno de los lagos! Trekkings por los lagos y la aldea Ounianga Serir. Impresionante espectáculo visual en una de las partes más bonitas del Ennedi. El Chad, el Borkou, el Ennedi y también el más remoto Tibesti, son un destino irrepetible, desconocido. A conocer. A reconocer                                                 Acampada en este oasis paradisíaco. PC
 
Día 12: LAGO OUNIANGA KEBBIR – BIR KORAN (7h)
 
Desayuno. Ruta de regreso hacia el sur. Paradas en ruta (paisaje, pinturas, poblados, mercados…). Acampada. PC
 
Día 13: BIR KORAN – KALAÏT - BATINÉ DJENÉ (8h)
 
Desayuno. Ruta de regreso hacia el sur. Paradas en ruta (paisaje, pinturas, poblados, mercados…). Acampada. PC
 
Día 14: BATINÉ DJENÉ – MOUSSORO (8h)
 
Desayuno. Ruta de regreso hacia el sur. Paradas en ruta (paisaje, pinturas, poblados, mercados…). Albergue en Moussoro o acampada. PC
 
Día 15: MOUSSORO – NDJAMENA (5h)
 
Desayuno. Seguiremos hasta Ndjamena. Traslado al hotel. Por la tarde visitas y compras en el mercado artesanal. Ducha en hotel y cena de despedida en casa de Hamit. Hotel Chez Wou o similar. MP (cena).
 
Día 16: NDJAMENA -  VUELO  A CASA (5h)
 
Desayuno y traslado al aeropuerto. Vuelo a casa.
 
Día 17: LLEGADA A CASA
 
FINAL DE NUESTROS SERVICIOS

El precio incluye:

-vuelo internacional
-todos los traslados
-Guía profesor de habla hispana durante todo el viaje
-Guías locales expertos en desierto
-Transporte durante todo el recorrido (4x4 Toyota Land Cruiser  con doble deposito especial desierto)
-Chóferes mecánicos especializados en desierto
-Permisos de circulación del ministerio de interior y de turismo policía e inmigración
-Alojamiento o acampada
-Comidas indicadas
-Agua (bidón agua potabilizada y botellas de agua mineral)
-Todas las excursiones, derechos de pueblos y autoridades locales
-Seguro de viaje
 
El precio no incluye:
-Comidas y bebidas que no están especificadas en el programa
-Visado turístico (lo gestiona agencia en París)
-Propinas (chóferes)
 

Teda 

Also known as Tubu, Toubou, or Goran.

Population & Ecosystem
50.000 Teda live between Tibesti Mountains and Ennedi Desert in northern Chad. Some groups live also in eastern Niger and southern Libya. Teda clans live nomadic or semi-nomadic lives moving from one oasis to another with their livestock.

Economy & Society
The Teda live either as nomadic herdsmen or as farmers near oases. Dates are a staple crop, and a variety of grains, legumes, and roots also are cultivated. Cattle, goats, donkeys, camels, and sheep are kept, and caravan trade is an important factor in the economy. In a few places, the Teda also mine salt and natron, a salt like substance which is essential in nearly all components of Teda life from medicinal purposes, as a mixture in chewing tobacco, preservation, tanning, soap production, textiles and for livestock.

The Teda live in camps that consist of extended family members. The oldest man in the family has authority until his death. Marriages involve the payment of a substantial bride-price, which consists of livestock. Polygamy is permitted, but rarely practiced. Most Teda communities have only a few hundred inhabitants. The more settled groups who live in the villages are not there for the whole year. Generally, they live in round huts with stone or mud walls. The huts have cone-shaped thatch roofs supported by a central post. The nomadic Teda often live in rectangular or oval-shaped tents that have wooden frames and mats made of palm leaves or animal skins. Sometimes, they use caves for shelter while looking for pasture.

Teda people have been socially stratified with an embedded caste system. The three strata have consisted of the freemen with a right to own property, the artisanal castes and the slaves.
The endogamous caste of Azza among Teda have the artisanal occupations, such as metal work, leather work, salt mining, well digging, dates farming, pottery and tailoring, and they have traditionally been despised and segregated by other strata of the Teda.

Marriage between a member of the Azza and a member from a different strata of the Teda people has been culturally unacceptable.

The lowest social strata were the slaves (Kamaja). Slaves entered Teda society from raids and warfare on other ethnic groups in lands to their south. All slaves were the property of their masters, their caste was endogamous, and their status was inherited by birth.

Rough sports and violence are a regular part of life among the Teda. Although the man is usually the family leader, the wife may beat him if he challenges her authority in certain matters. Women usually carry daggers, and the men do not interfere in a fight between two women.

Culture & Religion
Teda men wear loose-fitting draw-string pants under long-sleeved robes. Their clothing is usually white, and they often wear turbans or small Muslim caps. Teda women traditionally wear long wrap-around dresses and head coverings. Modesty requires that women cover their arms, legs, and heads. Jewellery is also an important part of the women's adornment. Although the Tedaare not required to wear veils, they often wear them for protection against the sun, dust, or cold weather.

The Teda are virtually all Muslim. However, prior to their conversion, they were Animistic. They converted to Islam in the 1800s, but only after almost 1000 years of contact with Arab Muslims. Their Animistic background, however, seems to have been incorporated into their Muslim practices. 

Today, the Teda follow the Islamic calendar, including fasting during the holy month of Ramadan. Both men and women faithfully say daily prayers, and more of them are now making pilgrimages to Mecca. Several Islamic schools have also been built in this region during the last century.
 

Sara

Also known as Sar, Kaba, Nar, Gulay, Ngambay, or Mbay.

Population & Ecosystem
1,045,000 Sara live in the moderately well-watered savannahs between Lake Iro in the east and the Logone River in the west. ‘Sara’ is the term employed by outsiders to refer to a group of non-Muslim tribes in southern Chad, all of whom speak mutually intelligible dialects. Each tribe is a distinct geographic, political, and endogamous entity.

Economy & Society
The Sara specialize in the slash-and-burn cultivation of cereals, especially sorghums and millets. They fish and raise chickens, dwarf goats, and a few horses. The French, in search of a stable supply of cotton fibre for their textile industry, introduced cotton as a cash crop in 1928. Post-independence governments have continued to emphasize the crop because its sale has brought 80 % of the country's foreign exchange. Because of cotton's importance, its production has been mandatory throughout the colonial and immediate postcolonial periods. Most cotton is produced by the Sara, who have added this work to their normal subsistence activities. Increasingly, manioc is substituted for cereals in areas where cotton production is high. Manioc requires less labour than do cereals but has less nutritional value. One reason for its popularity may be that it allows labour that would have been allocated to the growth of cereals to be directed instead to the maintenance or expansion of cotton cultivation.

Precolonial crafts included metalworking, pottery, cloth and basket weaving, calabash carving, and different forms of woodworking. All of these are in decline as their products are increasingly being replaced by manufactured imports.

Most Sara reside in small villages located near streams or along roads. In precolonial times, in principle, a hamlet was a distinct area in which members of a patrician lived with their wives, children, other kin, and followers. Villages were divided into a number of such tracts of different clans. Households in these villages tended to be dispersed, with their circular thatched huts standing in the midst of family members' fields, but colonial and postcolonial officials have obliged the relocation and concentration of households along more easily administered roads.
People in the precolonial states called those they raided ‘Kirdi,’ which generally meant any non-Muslim, and hence enslavable, person. The Bagirmi specialized in raiding Kirdi Sara during the 19th Century. In the early 20th Century the Sara were incorporated into French Equatorial Africa. The southern portion of Chad was considered by the French ‘1e Tchad utile,’ and it was here that administrators concentrated their efforts. The impact of colonization thus fell squarely upon the Sara. Their society was transformed by the introduction of taxes, paid in cash; of forced labour, especially on the Congo-Ocean Railroad; of obligatory cotton production; and of service in the French military, especially during World War IL By independence in 1960, the Sara were better educated and had greater experience with French political institutions than did the northern populations that had formerly raided them.

Most precolonial Sara tribes were highly acephalous; however, incessant raiding by the more northerly states had transformed nineteenth-century Sara lands into a laboratory of incipient centralization. Chiefdoms had begun to emerge among certain Sar, Nar, and Gulay. The most highly elaborated of these, organized around a person called the mbang (the Barma post-independence term for ‘sovereign’), was that of the Sar near the town of Bedaya.

The Sara have been extremely important in post-independence Chad. The first president, François Tombalbaye, was a Sar, and he and other Sara completely dominated the government, a reality that non-Sara—especially northerners—bitterly resented. Civil war began in 1966. In 1973 an increasingly hard-pressed and authoritarian Tombalbaye, in a bid to strengthen his legitimacy by reinstating certain, ‘traditional’ Sara institutions, created the Mouvement National pour la Révolution Culturelle et Sociale. For example, officials were supposed to participate in male initiation. Tombalbaye was assassinated in 1975 in a southern coup. By 1978, power had passed from the south to the north.

Culture & Religion
As we have seen Sara traditional society has radically changed in the last 60 years due to French colonial influence. Despite the profound changes, Sara people have kept until recent times facial and body scarification as a form of identity and personal beautification. Initiation rituals still occur in Sara society. They are performed every seven years for a duration of two months. For boys this is a period of hardship and painful scarification.

Singing and dancing have been and remain an important part of Sara life. Visual arts such as sculpture were little developed. Pearled dancing veils act as masks for women during rites of passage.

Precolonial religion was based on notions that different religious specialists could, by performance of appropriate ritual, influence different supernatural forces to restore or maintain natural and social well-being. Many Sara in contemporary times have converted to Christianity, often opting for some form of Protestantism.

There appear to have been three major forms of the supernatural. Nuba was a sort of otiose god who had created the world. A besi was a sort of ‘spirit’ that was immanent in, symbolized by, and named after natural objects—especially trees—or social activities, such as initiation. Bes interfere in peoples' lives by bringing misfortune. A badi, usually a deceased father or mother, can attack people and, like a besi, bring misfortune.

Many Sara conceived of death not so much as a biological event as a modification in social status. Each person was believed to have something like a soul. At death, this separated from the body. Provided the proper rituals were performed, however, the deceased did not perish but became a badi. Participation in mortuary ceremonies was important as a way of validating a person's membership in a clan.
 

Mbum

Also known as Mboum, M’boum, Buna, Mboutimba, or Wuna.

Population & Ecosystem
20.000 Mbum live in the fertile wooded savannahs and hills of Southwest Chad. An important number of Mbum also lives in Adamawa Plateau in neighbouring Cameroon.

Economy & Society
The Mbum are subsistence agriculturalists, specialized in the slash-and-burn cultivation of cereals, especially sorghums and millets. They fish and raise chickens and dwarf goats.
The Mbum have had a long and close relationship with the neighbouring Dii or Duru people in the eastern parts of Adamawa Province of Cameroon to the extent that it is frequently difficult to make any distinction between the two. Their relationship with the Fulani, who entered the region in the early-19th century, is more complex. The Fulani are often perceived as a ruling class; nevertheless, the Mbum have historically participated actively in the states set up by the Fulani.

Culture & Religion
The most visible aesthetic features of the Mboum are traditional hairstyles and nose piercings of the older generations. Old Mboum villages also show interesting vernacular architecture (round adobe conical huts with pointed thatched roofs). Music and dances are part of daily life culture in Mbum society.  In the village of Pao, 142 kms south of Moundou, near the Cameroon border, beautiful head masks are still worn during rites of passage. They are made of fibres, coloured with red paint. They remind of Mali’s Dogon Kanaga elongated masks.

African traditional religion is deeply rooted in Mboum’s ethnic identity and conversion essentially equates to cultural assimilation. Missionary activity and Islamization have been active in the region after Chad’s Independence (1960). Despite some conversions, most Mbum are still attached to the
 

Wodaabe

Also known as Bagirmi Fulani or Mbororo.

Population & Ecosystem
200.000 Wodaabe live in the forested savannah plains between Dourbali and Sarh. The Wodaabe in Chad are a sub-group of the much larger Fulani, a tribe that is spread across much of West Africa. They have also spread eastward and are now in parts of the Central African Republic.

Economy & Society
The Wodaabe in Chad are nomadic, mixing farming with shepherding. Although some Fulani tribes travel seasonally with their flocks, the Wodaabe have a permanent home they live in for half of the year. They only travel during the dry season, when grazing lands and water are scarce. Many of the men have multiple wives. Since cattle are a symbol of wealth among the Wodaabe, brides are sometimes chosen because of the amount of cattle they own.

Fula society is divided into casts. The fairly rigid caste system of the Wodaabe people has medieval roots, was well established by the 15th-century, and it has survived into modern age. The four major castes in their order of status are ‘nobility, traders, tradesmen (such as blacksmith) and descendants of slaves’.

On top of the pyramid there are the Dimo, meaning ‘noble’. The imo are followed by the artisan caste, including blacksmiths, potters, griots, genealogists, woodworkers, and dressmakers. They belong to castes but are free people. On the lower part of the pyramid there are those castes of captive, slave or serf ancestry. The Fulani castes are endogamous in nature, meaning individuals marry only within their caste.

Central to the Wodaabe people's lifestyle is a code of behaviour known as pulaaku, literally meaning the ‘Fulani pathways’ which are passed on by each generation as high moral values of the Wodaabe, which enable them to maintain their identity across boundaries and changes of lifestyle. Essentially viewed as what makes a person Wodaabe, or ‘Fulaniness’, pulaaku includes:
  • Munyal: Patience, self-control, discipline, prudence
    Gacce / Semteende: Modesty, respect for others (including foes)
    Hakkille: Wisdom, forethought, personal responsibility, hospitality
    Sagata / Tiinaade: Courage, hard work
 
Culture & Religion
The traditional dress of the Wodaabe consists of long colourful flowing robes, modestly embroidered or otherwise decorated. Both men and women wear a characteristic white or black cotton fabric gown, adorned with intricate blue, red and green thread embroidery work, with styles differing according to region and sex.

It is not uncommon to see the women decorate their hair with bead hair accessories as well as cowrie shells. Wodaabe women often use henna for hand, arm and feet decorations. Their long hair is put into five long braids that either hang or are sometimes looped on the sides. It is common for women and girls to have silver coins and amber attached to their braids. Some of these coins are very old and have been passed down in the family. The women often wear many bracelets on their wrists. The women can also be seen wearing a colourful cloth around, the waist, head or over one shoulder.

Like the men, the women have markings (combination of scarification and tattooing) on their faces around their eyes and mouths that they were given as children.

Wodaabe men are often seen wearing solid-coloured shirt and pants which go down to their lower calves, made from locally grown cotton, a long cloth wrapped around their faces, and a conical hat made from straw and leather on their turbans, and carrying their walking sticks across their shoulders with their arms resting on top of it. Often the men have markings on either side of their faces and/or on their foreheads. They received these markings as children. Wodaabe ethics are strictly governed by the notion of pulaaku. Women wear long robes with flowery shawls. They decorate themselves with necklaces, earrings, nose rings and anklets.
One of the most important events in Wodaabe culture is the Gerewol, a yearly ceremony that gathers all the Wodaabe clans so that young members of the tribe can flirt and meet their future wives and husbands. Gerewol happens at the end of the rainy season (late September, early October) but rehearsals and smaller Gerewol ceremonies can be seen all year around. During the Gerewol, dancing and singing become central.

The Wodaabe have a rich musical culture and play a variety of traditional instruments including drums, hoddu (a plucked skin-covered lute similar to a banjo), and riti or riiti (a one-string bowed instrument similar to a violin), in addition to vocal music. Zaghareet or ululation is a popular form of vocal music formed by rapidly moving the tongue sideways and making a sharp, high sound.
The Wodaabe were one of the first people groups in Chad to be converted to Islam. The Wodaabe still hold on to many old Fulani traditions. They believe that family, cattle, strong morals, beauty, poetry, singing, and dancing are the most important things in life.
 

Korbo

Also known as Dangaleat, Guera, Hadjarai or Hadjeray.

Population & Ecosystem
5.000 live in 5 villages at the feet of Korbo Mountains in Guera region in South Central Chad. Until the 1960s most Korbo lived on top of the hills but progressively have descended and live now is the fertile plains near the rocky mountains. They are part of the Hadjarai cluster of mountain tribes living in South-Central Chad.

Economy & Society
Korbo are subsistence farmers and shepherds. The main crop grown is millet; but some cotton, okra, beans, and corn are also grown, along with a variety of fruits and vegetables. Their main diet consists of a millet paste, eaten with a sauce made from wild leaves, meat, or dried fish. The Korbo receive income from selling surplus millet and from transporting goods for others. They trade with the nearby Arabs on a regular basis in order to purchase items they cannot otherwise obtain. In these trades, millet is given for milk, meat, and items made by Arab blacksmiths. The Korbo make only a few handicrafts, most of which are for their own use and not for sale to others. Some of the crafts include woven palm leaf mats, clay jars for transporting and storing water and grain, and cotton thread and fabric.

The term Hadjarai, which means ‘of the stones or mountains,’ is a collective term used to describe a group of mountain peoples living in the Guera region of South Central Chad. They are descendants of peoples from the surrounding plains who fled to the mountains in an attempt to escape the invasions of neighbouring tribes.

Though never united in the past, the Hadjarai people share a strong spirit of independence, forged in pre-colonial Chad by their repeated clashes with slave-raiding razzias in their territory, and supported in particular by the Ouaddai Kingdom. This tradition of independence has led to frequent clashes with the central government after Chad gained independence in 1960, at first largely because of attempts to force them to move from the hills to the plains. They were among the staunchest supporters of the rebels during the Chadian Civil War.

Korbo society is divided into a number of villages. Most villages have several clans, each of which lives in its own neighbourhood. Each village is run by a chief or headman, who is primarily in charge of settling disputes between the villagers. Every village also has a ‘chief of the land,’ who holds the ‘religious power’ of the village. 

The Korbo are rural and live in round, mud-brick huts with cone-shaped, thatch roofs. In town, the dwellings are also made of mud-brick, but are rectangular in shape and have flat roofs. The villages consist of several compounds. Each compound contains a number of huts belonging to an extended family.

Culture & Religion
Most of the Korbo women wear colourful print fabrics, which are either wrapped around their bodies or tailored into dresses. Head coverings are worn by the women when they are outside their own compounds. The men wear Western-style pants with shirts, or long robes with or without pants.  Korbo have lost most their original culture due to Islamization. Despite this they still gather in the village main square to dance. During the dancing and singing women (mostly the older generation) will wear beautiful and quite unique raffia helmets and metal anklets. The generation over 50 years old shows pierce lips (beauty mark back on those days) and a distinct hairdo.
                 
Although a majority of the Korbo have completely converted to Islam, pre-Islamic beliefs, however, are still practiced by the older generations and some traditionalist families. Therefore, the clans remain united in religion. All of the groups belong to what is known as the Margai cult. The Margai are believed to be invisible spirits who live in nature's formations and control the natural elements. This belief has survived the rapid conversion of most Korbo to Islam during the colonial period, despite attempts by the French colonial authorities to avoid Islamization through the promotion of Christian missions.
 

Buduma

Also known as Yedina.

Population & Ecosystem
90.000 Buduma live on scores of islands located within Lake Chad.

Economy & Society
Most Buduma are cattle herders or fishermen. They live on the more stable islands of Lake Chad in permanent villages. These scattered villages are enclosed by reed fences. Buduma weave their huts from papyrus reeds, so that the huts can be easily lifted and moved to higher ground when the lake rises. The village life and economy of the Buduma center on their cattle and, to a much lesser extent, on their crops of wheat and millet. Buduma cattle have distinct horns which are especially long. The horns help the cattle to swim when they lean their heads back in the water. Buduma do not use their cattle for meat, but for milk and sacrifices only. 

During the dry season, all able-bodied Buduma move to the floating islands to establish temporary camps. These islands are really floating rafts of matted vegetation, sometimes drifting and sometimes anchored by roots. 

Throughout the dry season, Buduma depend on fishing for their livelihood. They are well-known for their distinctive papyrus reed boats. Buduma use the smaller of these crafts for fishing and the larger ones for transporting cattle or for prolonged family accommodation. Although the Buduma formerly fished only for their own consumption, they now also fish commercially, transporting dried fish to Nigerian markets for trade. This new pattern of commerce has enabled the Buduma to purchase material goods they have been unable to produce themselves.

Unlike the diet of any other people in Africa, the Buduma diet is based on cow's milk and fish, with only a few cereal products. The people also collect water lily roots and grind them into flour, providing a supplement to their diet. The Buduma have remarkable physiques due to the high amounts of protein they eat daily. Consequently, Buduma are powerful swimmers, able to stay under water for long periods of time.

Buduma teach their children from an early age to swim, manage boats, to help with the nets and to fish. By age 15, boys are circumcised, marking their maturity into manhood. Men do not marry until their late twenties, usually marrying women substantially younger than they. 

Buduma are fiercely ethnocentric, placing a high value on preserving their distinct culture. Thus, they believe strongly in marrying within their own people group. Some Buduma men may intermarry with neighboring Kanembu women, but the men never take their wives back to their island homes. A Buduma woman will never marry a "mainland" man.

This historically large, shallow lake is located where Chad, Cameroon, Nigeria, and Niger meet. Although the shores of Lake Chad have long been inhabited by populations of mixed origin, the Buduma have managed to preserve their identity and homeland. They have resisted outside influences throughout history, remaining a fiercely independent people who, even today, are ruled by their own chiefs. 

In the past, the Buduma carried out violent raids on the cattle herds of their neighbours. They were feared villains with aggressive reputations; thus, they were respected and left alone for many years, protected by their own habitat of water and reeds. Today, they are a peaceful and friendly people willing to adopt some modern changes. Although their neighbours call them Buduma, meaning "people of the grass (or reeds)", they prefer to be called Yedina.

Culture & Religion
Buduma have adopted most of the aesthetics of the dominant Kanuri culture near Lake Chad. Facial scarification, consisting on two or three vertical lines of both cheecks, nose piercing, and hairdo based in small fine braids are Buduma female traits. Men wear either Western clothes or. The Buduma are largely Muslim. They also believe in the God Kumani, founder of the world, and put faith in priests who they believe will appease the spirits.
 
 

Missirie

Also known as Miserie or Red Arabs.

Population & Ecosystem
700.000 Missirie nomadic Arabs live between Lake Chad and Abeche in central Chad. Their ecosystem consists of stony plains where they graze their animals.

Economy & Society
Men manage the cattle and the crops of millet, yams, plantains, and cassava melons. They also build sun shelters, which they use for eating and entertaining while they are tending the herds. Young boys herd calves and small livestock. Most children attend a Koranic school, although girls usually withdraw after about six years.

Missirie ancestors emigrated from Sudan to Chad during the 14th century. They were primarily nomadic camel herders and slave traders. By the 18th century, the Arabs counted their wealth in their large herds of horses, cattle, goats, and sheep. Although the Arabs are respected by the Chad government because of their wealth in animals, they do not play a very large role in Chad's political arena. Their pastoral lifestyle has also saved them from being forced by the government to change culturally-an action that has disrupted the lives of the more settled peoples.

The Missirie generally have two homes-one in the village and one in a nomadic camp. During the dry season they live among more sedentary groups and share their agricultural lands. When the rains come the Missirie spread out among other Arab groups that live in the region. Marriage is used to strengthen kinship ties and is more a family than an individual concern. Arab men frequently have more than one wife. One wife usually lives in the nomadic camp, while the other lives in the village. 

The roles of Missirie men and women are strictly separated. Women are responsible for almost all tasks concerning home and family, including the construction of adobe houses, woven straw tents, the cooking areas, or any other structures associated with the house. They are the children's primary caretakers. Women also milk the cows that provide the family with dairy products. They earn extra income (which they keep) by selling the milk, butter, cheese and other products.

Marriage among the Missirie strengthens kinship ties. First, marriage is more a family than an individual concern; senior males from each family make initial contacts and eventually negotiate the marriage contract. An ideal union reinforces the social, moral, and material position of the group. Second, parallel cousin marriage (that is, union between the children of brothers or male relatives more removed), is preferred. This custom encourages the duplication of bonds within the group rather than the creation of a far-flung network of more tenuous, individual alliances. Finally, the marriage ceremony is itself a community affair. Marriage among the Missirie is an expression of solidarity. The ceremony is celebrated by a faqih (Muslim religious leader), and a joyous procession of neighbours, relatives, and friends escorts the bride to the house of her husband.

Culture & Religion
Ouled Himet clan of the Missirie tribe, lives with its domestic animals between Hadjer el Hamis (Elephant Rock) near Lake Chad and Oum Hadger. It is one of the most traditional Arab groups in Chad. Young women continue to make intricate hairdos, they pierce their nose with metal rings and decorate themselves with beaded necklaces. Scarification tends to disappear but still can be seen in both men and women cheeks.

Almost any occasion - the arrival of a visitor, unexpected good fortune, or someone returning from a trip - is an excuse for a communal feast. Betrothal, marriage, and moving newlyweds to their new residence calls for a major celebration, because it is considered a life-stage transition. This celebration also offers young people an opportunity for courting. Even the death of a family member is followed by feasting after a mourning period.

Chadian Arabs are predominantly Sunni Muslims, but they are not particularly interested in Muslim fundamentalist ideals. They observe the five pillars of faith (declare the faith of Islam, say daily prayers, give alms, fast, and make the pilgrimage to Mecca). 

 

Bua

Also known as Niellim.

Population & Ecosystem
23.000 Bua live in the forested plains and hills north of Sarh (Southern Chad) along the Chari River.

Economy & Society
The Bua are farmers and herders. The Bua travel a lot with their cattle, sheep and other animals. Bua people living near Chari River also fish.

Culture & Religion
Bua people scarified their faces with vertical marks in both chicks. The tradition started to fade in the 1960s with the arrival of missionaries and forced schooling. This information was gathered by Last Places team in 2017 in Karma village, near Chari River. In the religious aspect the Bua were forced into becoming Muslims at the beginning of 20th Century though most still follow the original African religion. The Bua living near roads or in bigger towns have converted into Christianity or follow Folk Islam.